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Re: Passive and active....

From:taliesin the storyteller <taliesin@...>
Date:Friday, December 31, 1999, 2:09
* Barry Garcia ( [991227 08:24]:
> So, how do all of your languages handle active and passive voice, if at > all?
I still haven't got the complete picture on voice and valence in ta:ruven, and too much happened during my christmas-vacation (the usual, eating and sleeping and dozing off alot) for me to look closer into it. However I'm assembling various findings on verbs at: Anyway: here's what I currently know (I've used OSV order just to mess with yer heads, muhahaha!): sïon = thing (inanimate) gav = doc (animate) 'ran: = break (transitive) -aþ = word is patient in clause -en = plural Active, unmarked: sïonaþ gav 'ran: "the dog breaks the thing" Passive, <-aál>: sïonaþ 'ran:aál "the thing is broken" sïonaþ gav 'ran:aál "the thing is broken by the dog" (agent/subject may be mentioned) Poetic passive, <y->: sïonaþ y'ran: "'they' break the thing'"[1] ('they' can be everything from Big Brother to 'the way it is') Reflexive, <-'ux>:[2] sïon 'ran:'ux "the thing breaks itself" (must be an animate thing. Maybe a Disney-teapot or sumthin') Reciprocal, <-tca>: gaven 'ran:tca "the dogs break each other" gav 'ran:tca "the dogs break each other" (if (single) agent not marked for plural, interpreted as plural) gav sïon 'ran:tca "the dog and the thing break each other" (several agents possible through implicit conjunction) Reflexive-reciprocal, <-s'u>:[2] gaven 'ran:s'u "the dogs break themselves and each other" (same notes as for reciprocal) Experiencer-causative, <-ac>: gavel 'ran:ac... "the dog do the breaking so that..." (basically adds a 'that', interpretation varies) Object incorporation: gav 'ran:sïon "the dog thing-breaks" (verb+patient/object, "stale" incorporations also known as verb-noun construction) No good examples on the causativizer and the detransitivizer, other may still be lurking. [1] Ahem, "lifted" from Akan :) [2] The actual form of the affix might be dialectal, more data required tal. -- Teflon Brain 2000(tm) - Excuse of the Future!