Re: Passive and active....
|From:||taliesin the storyteller <taliesin@...>|
|Date:||Friday, December 31, 1999, 2:09|
* Barry Garcia (Barry_Garcia@monterey.edu) [991227 08:24]:
> So, how do all of your languages handle active and passive voice, if at
I still haven't got the complete picture on voice and valence in ta:ruven,
and too much happened during my christmas-vacation (the usual, eating and
sleeping and dozing off alot) for me to look closer into it. However I'm
assembling various findings on verbs at:
Anyway: here's what I currently know (I've used OSV order just to mess
with yer heads, muhahaha!):
sïon = thing (inanimate)
gav = doc (animate)
'ran: = break (transitive)
-aþ = word is patient in clause
-en = plural
sïonaþ gav 'ran: "the dog breaks the thing"
sïonaþ 'ran:aál "the thing is broken"
sïonaþ gav 'ran:aál "the thing is broken by the dog"
(agent/subject may be mentioned)
Poetic passive, <y->:
sïonaþ y'ran: "'they' break the thing'"
('they' can be everything from Big Brother to 'the way it is')
sïon 'ran:'ux "the thing breaks itself"
(must be an animate thing. Maybe a Disney-teapot or sumthin')
gaven 'ran:tca "the dogs break each other"
gav 'ran:tca "the dogs break each other"
(if (single) agent not marked for plural, interpreted as plural)
gav sïon 'ran:tca "the dog and the thing break each other"
(several agents possible through implicit conjunction)
gaven 'ran:s'u "the dogs break themselves and each other"
(same notes as for reciprocal)
gavel 'ran:ac... "the dog do the breaking so that..."
(basically adds a 'that', interpretation varies)
gav 'ran:sïon "the dog thing-breaks"
(verb+patient/object, "stale" incorporations also known as verb-noun
No good examples on the causativizer and the detransitivizer, other may
still be lurking.
 Ahem, "lifted" from Akan :)
 The actual form of the affix might be dialectal, more data required
Teflon Brain 2000(tm) - Excuse of the Future!