From: | Christophe Grandsire <grandsir@...> |
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Date: | Tuesday, September 7, 1999, 9:48 |

Hi everybody, This time I won't bother you with grammatical features in my New Personal Language, but with the numerical system I find really neat, and disturbing as the rest of the language, but yet usable. This system is derived from the calendar system I made, and that I won't present here (it's more an issue for conculture) except if you want me to present it. The principal thing to know is that there is two numerical systems, not only one. There is the so-called scientific system, very straitforward and expandable, used mainly for scientific purposes or big numbers, and the so-called common system, more complicated and related to the calendar, and used in everyday life for numbers not too big (less the 1 million I mean). The scientific system is octal and only octal. The common system is octal, but mixed with a duodecimal system. I'll present first the scientific system, because it's the easiest one. THE SCIENTIFIC SYSTEM: The scientific system is relatively simple and straightforward. It has roots for numbers from zero to seven and roots for the powers of eight. To make numbers, just compound those roots in the same way than the regular system of Esperanto. The different roots are: 0: 0: chiu /dJ'Ew/ 1: 1: ye /j'e/ 2: 2: pan /p'an/ 3: 3: uh /'ytS/ 4: 4: thig /T'ig/ 5: 5: vol /B'Ol/ 6: 6: ceuz /g'9z/ 7: 7: bzom /bz'Om/ 10: 8: joe /dZ'Oj/ 100: 64: japa /dZap'a/ 1000: 512: jaocho /dZawtS'o/ 1 0000: 4096: jathi /dZaT'i/ 1 0000 0000: 16 777 216: jasejo /dZas@dZ'o/ As you can see, the digits are grouped by four, not by three. To make stems from these roots, just compound them. Suffixation means addition and prefixation means multiplication as usual, except for the unity which is added by the prefix e-. So 9 (11 in octal) is ejoe /edZ'Oj/, whereas 10 (12 in octal) is jopan /dZop'an/ (joe become jo- when followed by another number. 16 (20 in octal) is simply panjoe /pandZ'Oj/. Also, uh is suffixed as -h and prefixed as u-). This prefix e- is never put inside a number, so 73 (111 in octal) is ejapajoe /edZap@dZ'Oj/, not *japa'ejoe. When this can lead to ambiguities (does ejojathi mean 10 0001 or 11 0000?) the suffix -ye can be used to disambiguate, so ejojathi /edZodZ@T'i/ is 11 0000 and 10 0001 is jojathiye /dZodZaT@j'e/. The compound formed by this way is always regularly stressed (primary stress on the last syllable and secondary stress on the second-to-last syllable). THE COMMON SYSTEM: The common system is more complex as it mixes base 8 and base 12 and has non-straightforward derivations. It uses the same roots from 0 to 8 than the scientific system, but then it uses other roots for the rest. The roots used are: 0: 0: chiu /dJ'Ew/ 1: 1: ye /j'e/ 2: 2: pan /p'an/ 3: 3: uh /'ytS/ 4: 4: thig /T'ig/ 5: 5: vol /B'Ol/ 6: 6: ceuz /g'9z/ 7: 7: bzom /bz'Om/ 10: 8: joe /dZ'Oj/ 11: 9: yej /j'EdZ/ 12: 10: paj /p'adZ/ 13: 11: uj /'ydZ/ 14: 12: gama /gam'a/ 20: 16: pinchuu /pindZ'u/ 30: 24: uchuu /ydZ'u/ 40: 32: thechuu /TedZ'u/ 50: 40: vochuu /BodZ'u/ 60: 48: thegma /TEgm'a/ 140: 96: jogma /dZOgm'a/ 5552: 2922: jorqui /dZORk'9j/ The reason for the use of such roots for such numbers relies on the calendar system. The composition is generally additive (with the prefix e- for the unity, replaced by the suffix -ye for disambiguation like for the scientific system) and multiplicative like the scientific one, except for some things like: - the numbers from 13 to 15 (15 to 17 in octal) are formed by substraction: 15: 13: upinchuu /yp@ndZ'u/ (16-3) 16: 14: panpinchuu /panp@ndZ'u/ (16-2) 17: 15: yepinchuu /jep@ndZ'u/ (16-1) 20: 16: pinchuu /pindZ'u/ 21: 17: epinchuu /ep@ndZuu/ (16+1) 22: 18: pinchuupan /pindZ@wp'an/ (16+2) - thegma can never be multiplied (but jogma and jorqui can) (NOTE: thegma and jogma are used like French 'quatre-vingt, quatre-vingt-dix', so 56 (70 in octal) is thegmajoe /TEgm@dZ'Oj/) and 64 (100 in octal) is thegmapinchuu /TEgmap@ndZ'u/). The stress rule of those stems is still regular. THE USE OF THE NUMERIC STEMS: Those stems cannot be used as they are. They must be used as adjectives (which can be nominalized) to make cardinal or ordinal numbers (nothing very strange, but I already told you that I wanted a disturbing language but not mandatorily an original one). To make cardinal numbers, the stems must be turned into AR- adjectives (which agree with the noun in animation -gender-) and so must be prefixed by AR- when used with an animate noun (this prefixation is generally regular, except with 1: ye whose animate form is er /'ER/, and the numbers prefixed by e-, whose animate form is prefixed instead by er-). To make ordinal numbers, the stems must be turned into -EUTH adjectives (which agree with the noun in construction) and so must be suffixed by -EUTH in normal state (this suffixation often leads to modifications of the stem or irregularities, like 1: ye whose ordinal form is euth, a"e"vi /'9T,'ajv@/: first or 2: pan whose ordinal form is panth, pa"nvi /p'anT, p'anv@/: second). Okay, so much for the numeric system of Chasma"o"cho. And as usual, I welcome all your comments, and if you want to know more about the calendar system I made, just tell me (I'll answer you off-list I think, as this topic is not very relevant for the conlang-list and I'm not on the conculture-list with this e-mail address). -- Christophe Grandsire Philips Research Laboratories -- Building WB 145 Prof. Holstlaan 4 5656 AA Eindhoven The Netherlands Phone: +31-40-27-45006 E-mail: grandsir@natlab.research.philips.com