Agents and patients (II)
|Date:||Tuesday, March 14, 2000, 15:04|
If you didn't read part I (the other message), do so
before reading this.
I've now changed this hierarchy, and I'm trying to assign
proper names to each case.
1, 2, 3, 4 = AGT, PAC, DAT, ABL could be
1, 2, 3, 4 = AGT, PAC, EXP, OBL
(EXP = experiencer; OBL = general oblique, probably source
too, and also demoted agent).
NPs in a sentence must follow this order; gaps are allowed, but
you can't shift orders without shifting cases. This double shift
also serves to mark topicality (still not sure about voice; I
think there won't be any mark on verbs, since the following
structure seems to suffice). Some examples:
Active volitional agent uses case 1:
cat.1 mouse.2 kill
'cat kills mouse'
In passive sentences, case 1 gets demoted to 4,
which also brings the patient to the front (topical
mouse.2 cat.4 kill
*'from cat kill mouse'
'mouse is killed by cat'
Non-volitional agents/experiencers use case 3,
while their patients use case 4. The actual
meaning of verbs using this construction may be
different from the glosses.
cat.3 mouse.4 see
*'to cat see from mouse'
'cat sees mouse'
In 'passive' sentences, there's a promotion of the syntactic
object (no demotion of subject!): the patient becomes case 2,
mouse.2 cat.3 see
*'see mouse to cat'
'mouse is seen by cat'
What does this look like? I personally think it's neat (the
hierarchical order really helps!).