|From:||Shreyas Sampat <shreyas@...>|
|Date:||Thursday, May 2, 2002, 21:27|
The Coatlalopeuh verb phrase has a mood/evidential marker device, which
manifests as a particle appearing between the focus and the verb.
The complex is formed by concatenating the mood and evidential particles,
Once the evidence of a discourse is established, it can be omitted, but mood
is always required.
These moods are in evidence:
hi- : indicative. This only appears in subordinate clauses; it marks
whatever was the preceding noun as the focus of the following sentence. In
primary clauses its form is zero.
tlit- : irrealis. This mood is used for yes-no and wh-questions, and also
for the condition in conditionals. It's also pseudo-evidential; it has
connotations similar to the evidential |mlu| when neither interrogative nor
kao- : imperative 1. Strong commands.
sao- : imperative 2. Suggestions. Neither imperative accepts evidentials.
pan- : contrafactual. This works similarly to the English contrafactual, or
as a negation.
xiih- : interrogative. This form is used only with an evidential to ask for
the *source* of the evidence.
These are the evidentials:
-soan : witness. This is not required in the indicative mood.
-rei : hearsay. Someone told the speaker.
-mlu* : implication. The speaker supposes this, drawing on observation.
-ñlla* : (that's |<n-tilde>lla|) mystical. The speaker supposes this,
drawing on little or no earthly evidence.
-ittoi : narrative/prophetic. This evidential marks things that "are said",
literature, prophecy, and that sort of thing.
*: |tlit|-, |pan|- and |xiih|- lose their final consonant before these.
Also, the combination of |xiih| and |ittoi| is |xihiittoi|; by the
sllabification rules the final /j/ of |xiih| becomes the onset of a syllable
and its spelling changes.
I thought I'd translate the infamous Red Bird exercise to illustrate.
Muroin sao llaoseattaxta tineakeitxiih!
Paneuk soan risuehhi koareussa muroineulaih!
Aa! Sim tlisoan koareussa?
sim: 3p pronoun
There are various weird oblique formations going on there... interlinear:
parentheses indicate ephenthetic vowels.
V is vowel duplication, : is morphological length.
in phonetic transcription, |L| is a palatal lateral, |'| is primary stress,
|,| is secondary stress. Stress when not emphatic is unmarked in
There are two lines of morphemic analysis and two more-and-less-strict
["mu.4win saw "Law.Sat.taS.,ta "tin.ja.ge.,tSij]
Muroin sao 0-llaoseat-:V-xta tineak-eV-txiih!
tree IMP sg-see-3-ACC small-OBL-GEN
The small tree, look!
Look at the small tree!
It, I see!
I see it!
["pan.juk fan "ri.sujh.hi "k^ha4.jus.sa "mu4.win.jo.,laj]
Paneuk soan 0-risueh-:V-0 koareus-:V-0 muroin-eV-laih!
bird WITNESS sg-red-3-NOM sg-beautiful-3-NOM tree-OBL-superessive
A bird is red and beautiful in the top of the tree.
A beautiful red bird is in the top.
["a: sim "Ki.fan k^ha4.jus.sa]
Aa! Sim tli-soan 0-koareus-:V-0?
Ah! 3sg INTERROG-WITNESS sg-beautiful-3-NOM
Ah! Isn't it beautiful?
Ah! It's beautiful, isn't it?