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cases (Zhyler)

From:David Peterson <digitalscream@...>
Date:Monday, December 2, 2002, 18:49
Here are Zhyler's 57 noun cases:

(Note: Ignore the nucleic capital letters in the suffix examples--they're
underspecified vowels)

Noun Cases:
1.) Nominative: --: 2kk2 (hand), kozbol (palm tree), balakfen (gorilla)
2.) Accusative: -(r/z)/-A(r/z): 2kk2r (hand [obj.]), kozbolar (palm tree),
balakfener (gorilla)
3.) Dative: -s/-lRs: 2kk2s (to the hand), kozboll2s (to the palm tree),
balakfenles (gorilla)
4.) Genitive: -v/-Uv: 2kk2f (of the hand), kozboluf (of the palm), balakfenyf
5.) Instrumental: -t/-At: 2kk2t (by means of the hand), kozbolat, balakfenet
6.) Aninstrumental: -(r/z)At: 2kk2ret (without use of a hand), kozbolrat,
7.) Benefactive: -S/-(w)WS/-QwMS: 2kk2S (for the hand), kozbolowMS,
8.) Malefactive: -(r/z)XS: 2kk2reS (on the hand), kozbolroS, balakfenreS
9.) Vocative/Invocative: -A/-jA/-(j)JjA: 2kk2joja (O, hand!), kozboloja (O,
palm!), balakfene (heeeeeeey gorilla!)
10.) Commitative: -n/-(j)En/-AjEn: 2kk2n (with the hand), kozbolajan,
11.) Anacommitative: -(l/n)Rm: 2kk2l2m (without the hand), kozboll2m,
12.) Locative: -k/-Ik: 2kk2k (at/around the hand), kozboluk (at the palm),
13.) Allative: -w/-Qw: 2kk2w (towards the hand), kozbolow (to the palm),
14.) Inessive: -z/-Bz: 2kk2z (in the hand, "at" [temp.]), kozbolaz (in the
palm), balakfenaz
15.) Inlative: -Z/-BZ: 2kk2Z (into the hand), kozbolaZ (into the palm),
16.) Abessive: -d/-Id: 2kk2t (away from the hand), kozbolut, balakfenit
17.) Ablative: -D/-ID: 2kk2T (from the hand), kozboluT (from the palm),
18.) Exessive: -g/-gB: 2kk2k (out from the hand), kozbolga, balakfeNga
19.) Exlative: -gBm: 2kk2Gam (out of the hand), kozbolgam, balakfeNgam
20.) Rexessive: -b/-bU: 2kk2p (right of the hand), kozbolbu (in the palm),
21.) Rexlative: -bUm: 2kk2bym (by [right side] the hand), kozbolbum,
22.) Linksessive: -vFl: 2kk2vel (left of the hand), kozbolvel, balakfemvel
23.) Linkslative: -vFm: 2kk2vem (by [left side] the hand), kozbolvem,
24.) Enessive: -s/-sN: 2kk2s (on [top of] the hand), kozbols2, balakfensa
25.) Enlative: -sNm: 2kk2s2m (onto the hand), kozbols2m, balakfensam
26.) Dessive: -dZ/-dZA: 2kk2tS (not on the hand), kozboldZa, balakfendZe
27.) Delative: -dZAm: 2kk2dZem (off of the hand), kozboldZam, balakfendZem
28.) Subessive: -vAj: 2kk2vej (under the hand), kozbolvaj, balakfemvej
29.) Sublative: -vAm: 2kk2vem ([go] under the hand), kozbolvam, balakfemvem
30.) Supressive: -(l/n)Aj: 2kk2lej (above the hand), kozbollaj, balakfenlej
31.) Suplative: -(l/n)Am: 2kk2lem (over the hand), kozbollam, balakfenlem
32.) Proessive: -nOj: 2kk2n2j (in front of, "after" [temp.] the hand),
kozbolnoj, balakfenn2j
33.) Prolative: -nOm: 2kk2n2m ([go] in front of the hand), kozbolnom,
34.) Postessive: -mXj: 2kk2mej (behind, "before" [temp.] the hand),
kozbolmoj, balakfemmej
35.) Postlative: -mXm: 2kk2mem ([go] behind the hand), kozbolmom, balakfemmem
36.) Translative: -kQm/-kQmo: 2kk2komo ([go] through the hand), kozbolkomo,
37.) Topical: -(l/n)Av/-(l/n)Av2: 2kk2lev2 (about the hand), kozbollav2,
38.) Becausative: -tSQd/-tSQdu: 2kk2tSodu (because of the hand), kozboltSodu,
39.) Focus/Oblique: -tFk/-tFxi: 2kk2texi (with respect to the hand),
kozboltexi, balakfentek
40.) Authorative: -zIn/-zInI: 2kk2zyny (by the hand), kozbolzunu, balakfenzin
41.) Contrative: -DIv/-DIvy: 2kk2Dyvy (against the hand), kozbolDuvy,
42.) Adverbial/Exhortative: -F/-sF: 2kk2se (hand-ly, or go hand!), kozbolse,
43.) Possessive: -jE: 2kk2j2 ("on" the hand, the hand has), kozboljo,
44.) Interrogative: -vFt*: 2kk2vet (which/what hand), kozbolvet, balakfemvet
45.) Conjunctive: -nAm: 2kk2, kozbol, balakfennem (the hand, the palm and the
46.) Discriminatory (Inclusive): -tFn: 2kk2, kozbolten (either the hand or
the palm, or both)
47.) Discriminatory (Exclusive): -tFz: 2kk2, kozboltez (either the hand or
the palm, but not both)
48.) Monoexclusive: -(r/z)Al: 2kk2, kozbol, balakfenrel (the hand and palm,
but not the gorilla)
49.) Exclusive: -(r/z)Rn: 2kk2, kozbolr2n (neither the hand nor the palm)
50.) Durative: -kFl*: volg2kel (for a short time)
51.) Equative: -(l/n)XZ*: 2kk2leZ (like a hand), kozbolloZ, balakfenleZ
52.) Inequative: -(r/z)XZ: 2kk2reZ (unlike a hand), kozbolroZ, balakfenreZ
53.) Comparative: -tIs*: 2kk2tys (more of a hand, than...), kozboltus,
54.) Contrastive: -sIv: 2kk2syf (than the hand), kozbolsuf, balakfensif
55.) Superlative: -lAm*: 2kk2lem (the handest of all), kozbollam, balakfenlem
56.) Comprisative: -bYS: 2kk2b2S (made of/from a hand, [plu.] among),
kozbolb2S, balakfemb2S
57.) Distributive*: -zFr, 2kk2jzer (each hand separately), kozbolajzer,

Some have multiple listed uses, and all of them have varied lexical uses (so
that the "direct object" of the verb "to miss" takes the aninstrumental
rather than the accusative).   Then, here's an example of case stacking:

1.) sexa saj-lar
1I.) man-NOM. die-PAST
1T.) The man died.

2.) sexa petti-r saj-as-lar
2I.) man-NOM. king-ACC. die-CAUS.-PAST
2T.) The man killed the king (i.e., caused the king to die).

3.) sexa sajdM-r petti-r-ez saj-as-as-lar
3I.) man-NOM. assassin-ACC. king-ACC.-ACC. die-CAUS.-CAUS.-PAST
3T.) The man hired an assassin to kill the king (i.e., the man caused the
assassin to cause the king to die).

With the double accusative, there's a phonemic rule that forbids rVr, so the
second /r/ changes to [z] (same thing happens with lVl, /l/ > [n]).   In
theory, you can stack as many cases as is logical.   I got the idea from an
Australian language I heard about in my morphology class one day last

So that's my bit on cases.   :)   They're fun.


"imDeziZejDekp2wilDez ZejDekkinel..."
"You can celebrate anything you want..."
               -John Lennon