GROUPLANG : POLL2 (Re: cases, modifiers, pronouns)
|From:||Mathias M. Lassailly <lassailly@...>|
|Date:||Monday, October 19, 1998, 20:54|
>From the last poll we could draw the conclusion that the majority of us would like :
- prefixed cases.
- suffixed genders or classifiers.
- postpositions and/or supensive predicate.
Further discussions apparently show that a majority would like :
- 'case+argument + predicate' order.
- both noun- and verb-rooted predicates.
1. The following cases have been most suggested :
1.1. Cases used with verb-rooted predicates :
- ergative = transitive nominative ERG=TNOM : erg-me to-be-red = I redden (him);
erg-me to-rise = I raise; erg-me bite = I bite.
- absolutive = undergoer = intransitive nominative ABS=UND=INOM : abs-me to-rise
= I rise; abs-me to-be-red = I am/become red.
Nota : this is not a genuine absolutive which should be passive as in Basque as in :
abs-me to-be-cut = I'm cut => erg-me abs-it to-be-cut = I cut it.
- patientive = accusative PAT=ACC : pat-me to-bite = I'm bitten.
- causative CAUS : caus-me erg-he red = I have him redden (something); caus-me
erg-he fall = I have him fell; erg-me food = I apply food = I feed (someone).
- dative DAT : dat-me to-give = I'm given (a gift).
1.1. Cases used with noun-rooted predicates :
- agentive AGE : age-me stream = I stream; age-me club = I beat; age-me gift =
I'm given (as a gift); age-me image = I'm seen.
- ergative ERG : erg-me red = I apply red on him; erg-me fall = I apply fall on
him = I make him fall; erg-me hammer = I apply hammer = I hammer (with a tool).
- patientive PAT : pat-me red = I'm applied red colour; pat-me club = I'm
clubbed; pat-me eye = I'm looked at.
- absolutive ABS : abs-me eye = abs-image = I see; abs-seat = I sit; abs-me
fruit : I bear fruit; abs-me rise = I rise; abs-me gift = I'm given (a gift).
- attributive ATT : att-me home = I live in (a cave); att-me brother = I've a
brother; att-me ears = I've ears; att-me smoke = I (release) smoke; etc.
- causative CAUS : caus-me erg-he red = I have him redden; caus-me erg-he fall =
I have him fell something.
1.3. Case used with arguments :
- genitive GEN : dog gen-me / gen-me dog = my dog
2. Suggested degrees of integration were :
- thema + rhema (topic) THEM + RHEM : them-(abs)-dog red = the dog, she's red;
OR dog red = the dog, (she's) red.
- argument + predicate + ARG + PRED : erg-dog pat/acc-me bite = dog bites me.
- modifier + noun / modifier + predicate = MOD + NOUN/PRED : mod-red dog = red
dog; erg-me mod-hard bite = I bite hard.
- phrase + determinant / noun + determinant = PHR/NOUN + DET : det-pat-me bite
dog = the dog who bites me.
- clause + relative + sub-clause = CL + REL + SUBCL : dog erg-it pat-me bite =
the dog who bites me / the dog biting me; dog abs-it red = red dog; erg-dog
pat-me abs-which hard bite = dog bites me hard.
3. Suggested pronouns were :
3.1. Personal pronouns (spacial deixis - no genders discussed here) :
- 1, 2, 3, 3bis
- 1sg, 1pl, 2sg, 2pl, 3sg, 3pl
- 1incl, 1excl, 2incl, 2excl, 3
3.2. Relative/resumptive pronouns (syntactic deixis) :
latter/former/next one : dog erg-last_one pat-me bite = dog who bites me
latter/this/next fact : erg-dog abs-this_fact hard pat-me bite = dog bites me hard; arg-dog
pat-me bite att-latter_fact hard = dog bites me hard.
Please make your choice and comments on items 1.1 through 3.2.
Suggested next step : postpositions/adverbal subclause; word-order in subclause;
genders/classifiers; derived nouns, state/action nouns ('the one bitten', 'the
maker', 'the fact of eating'); aspects, moods ('want to', 'can', 'must', etc.)
tenses, negative; for verb-rooted predicates : passive, (antipassive ?).
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