Relays, Link 2
|From:||Shreyas Sampat <nsampat@...>|
|Date:||Tuesday, August 21, 2001, 4:55|
(apologies for the funky format.)
Rob Hailman's Ajuk
"Nomap upapamuda nomuzap duz ukhotaj Ledaj.
Bal ledi amad namorenot upotamudi, nomap asajapama duz nanamo.
Duz nanamaj kamapama nomuzap nomap ukhoto tero.
Nad teraj upapamuda vesap nomap duz nomapi dunaj dan omasaj.
Ejapas omas manapasami nomapo erapasi ugho,
un shuz erapasi ughi donomibapasami erapas nomapo."
nom-ap up-ap-am-ud-a nomuz-ap duz uhk-ot led-aj.
nom-masc. up-masc.-pt.-imp.-1P nomuz-masc. duz ukh-inm. led-DAT.
bal led-I amad namoren-ot up-ot-am-ud-i,
bal leg-GEN amad namoren-inm. up-inm.-pt.imp.-3P,
nom-ap asaj-ap-am-a duz nanam-o.
nom-masc. asaj-masc.-pt.-1P duz nanam-ACC.
duz nanam-aj kam-ap-am-a nomuz-ap nom-ap ukh-ot-o ter-o.
duz nanam-DAT kam-masc.-pt.-1P nom-masc. ukh-inm.-ACC ter-ACC.
nad ter-aj up-ap-am-ud-a ves-ap nom-ap
mad ter-DAT up-masc.-pt.-imp.-1P ves-masc. nom-masc.
duz nom-ap-i dun-aj dan om-as-aj.
duz nom-masc.-GEN dun-DAT dan om-PL-DAT.
ej-ap-as om-as man-ap-as-am-i nom-ap-o
ej-masc.-PL om-PL man-masc.-PL-pt.-3P nom-masc.-ACC
un shuz er-ap-as-i ugh-i donomib-ap-as-am-i
un shuz er-masc.-PL-GEN ugh-GEN donomib-masc.-PL-pt.-3P
pt: past tense
1P/3P: 1st/3rd person
Vilom - prop. n. the Ajuk creator god, also the name of the first Ajuk
serekapi - v. to speak, to say, to tell.
nom - pron. first person, marked for gender and plurality.
up - v. to be
nomuz - adj. alone
duz - prep. in, into, from within
ukh - art. the
led - n. black, blackness
amad - n. noise, sound
namoren - adj. deaf, deafening
nanam - n. silence, adj. silent
asaj - v. to sit, to settle, to take refuge
kam - v. to make, to build, to create
ter - n. world, universe
nad - prep. to, at, near
dan - prep. with, among
ves - n. end, adj. final, adv. finally
dun - n. place, put
om - n. person, man
ugh - n. god, deity, also the Ajuk term for the Judeo-Christian God
ej - adj. this
er. - pron. third person, marked for gender and plurality
shuz - prep. according to, as
Some notes about text and Ajuk grammar:
This text is in a traditional type of Ajuk poetry, where the last
concept expressed in a line is the first in the next, as much as
possible. Also, to complete the pattern, the first line of the body of
the poem begins with the concept with which the last ends. Note that
most of these poems also have a one line prologue which gives a small
background into the nature of the rest of the poem.
Where case and number aren't marked, assume nominative and genitive.
Ajuk is head final, and generally SVO.
A noun in the accusative, dative, or ablative follows most prepositions.
Note that generally the ablative causes some sort of reversal in the
meaning of the preposition, and the accusative indicates some motion. A
small number of prepositions can only be followed by only one case,
usually (but not always) this case is the genitive.
The creator spoke:
"I was alone in the blackness.
Because the blackness' noise was deafening, I took refuge in silence.
In silence I created the world alone.
In this world, I was finally in my place, among men.
These men named me their god,
And as their god they worshipped me."
"I was alone in the black.
Because black's noise deafening was, I settled into silence.
In silence made alone I the world.
At world was finally I in my place with men.
These men named me their god,
and as their god worshipped they me."
Ring 2, Bryan Maloney's Praxian:
Airánðís heltain ðepyan.
Pain felenpenairaflíramis daina díbyámdes.
Dain enpyeðramdaina 'ekdes
pain felenpenairaflíramis te'ek daina díbyámdes
sômen apipainidain «Apakeðôn entimôrbavekis enípiyíp dímôr.» sômôrdes.
Apiheltipaina tenenûmôripain sômen
«Lar heltinat sô'enza lar felaheltat ðe'a
lar enpyeðramlara eneha'ek apkônlar «Apakeðôn enso'ekenípiyípa dímôr.»
Pain tenmôrdaina «Bavekan apaket dômitelanis ðemen gagarðekun ðebyen»
A woman minds a child.
She could put him into their yurt.
Or he could have his fun
then she could put him into their yurt because of what he had done.
And then she would ask him "What is the explanation for the disruption that
you caused in front of everybody?"
He would say to her (because of what she had asked),
"Ever since I was a little baby, and even now that I am a youth,
every time I have fun you say 'What is the explanation for what happened in
front of everybody?'"
She would reply, "Because this disruption makes my heart ache and causes me
And so it goes again and again.
(and lexicon and grammar)
airánð-ís helt-ain ðe-pyan.
N f drt N m irt prt V
pain fel-en-pen-airaflíram-is daina dí-byám-des
f3 prp gen p3 N f irt m3 imp V sub
dain en-pyeðram-dain-a 'ek-des
m3 gen N m3 m irt V sub
pain fel-en-pen-airaflíram-is te-'ek daina dí-byám-des
f3 prp gen p3 N f irt mot V m3 imp V sub
sô-men ap-i-pain-i-dain ap-a-keð-(h)ôn en-ti-môr-bavek-is eníp-iyíp
conj dat e f3 e m3 dat e m2 f1 gen pl N N f drt pre N
imp V pat V sub
ap-i-helt-i-pain-a ten-en-(n)û-môr-i-pain sômen
dat e N e f3 m drt mot gen pl N e f3 conj
lar heltin-at sô-'enza lar fel-a-helta-(a)t ðe-'a
m1 N m irt pat V m1 prp e N m drt pre V
lar en-pyeðram-lar-a eneha-'ek ap-kôn-lar ap-a-keð-(k)ôn
m1 gen N m1 m drt suc V dat f2 m1 dat e m2 f1
en-so'ek-eníp-iyíp-a dí-môr heha-môr-tis sô-môr-des
gen N pre N m drt imp V con V emp pat V sub
pain t(e)-en-môr-dain-a bavek-an ap-a-ket dômitelan-is ðemen
f3 mot gen N m3 m drt N n dem dat e f1 N f drt conj
gagarðek-un ðe-byen sô-môr-des
N fo drt pre V pat V sub
con V e emp
N Noun Root
V Verb Root
drt definite article
irt indefinite article
dem demonstrative article (this/that)
emp Emphatic ending, gives emphasis to any word.
p plural (a "para-gender" for some pronouns)
aco accompanitive ("with")
mot motative ("for" or "because")
rel relative ("which")
pre present (in the presence of)
prp pre-present (entering the presence of or "into")
prt present tense
suc supercontinuant (whenever, every time that)
pat past tense
1 first person
2 second person
3 third person
yurt, dwelling of a Tribesman
(neut) foolishness, stupidity, wrongdoings; (for.) evildoings, petty crime
pain of the heart, a wound to the core, that act which stops all activity
(masc) the desert wind, a dust devil, (for.) disorder, disruption
heifer calf, bull calf, child
unweaned calf, pre-toilet-trained child
the dome of the sky, the sun's place
fun, amusement, silliness, play
to be called, to have the name
to have the time in the past (begins answer to question "when did it
to go, to come
to bring, to take
to move around the perimeter of a circle or circular path
to speak, to say
to herd, to guide, to watch over
and, therefore, the second happens after the first
and, the first and second happen concurrently
Praxian forms some verbs by using a third person imperative. For example:
"pain daina píbyám" means "she compels him to go/come" or "she sends him".
Since Praxian is rigidly verb-final, this means that some sentences can end
up with a whole string of verbs, each one nesting the clause.
Praxian cases are seen as relations between nouns and have the following
structure: casemarker-subject-object, thus "endrawaha"
(genitive-people-waha) means "people genitive waha" or "waha's people".
The emphatic ending can combine in colorful ways with continuant tenses,
with the simple continuant, it usually means the act in question always
happens or is "happening ALLLL the time".
Praxian has no interrogatives. Instead, all "questions" are phrased as
commands. Politeness is determined by context, relationship, and most
importantly, by delivery. Praxian has no form of the verb "to be". One can
speak the attributes of something but not say what it *is*. However, there
are circumlocutions that can be used--but they vary from topic to topic.
Some things are "to be" identified by their substance, some by their use,
some by their name.
At times the demonstrative can take the place of a second-person genitive
Praxian storytellers will often drop out of the subjunctive when relating