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Second Language Uploaded

From:Andrew Chaney <adchaney@...>
Date:Monday, November 20, 2000, 2:41
I have finished a bare-bones sketch of my second conlang.
You can read about it in this message or at:

< >

As I said, it's a little incomplete but the basics are there.

I wanted to get this one fleshed out a bit because it and my other
conlang < >
are going to have to interact (loan words, etc) quite a bit
(commerce, diplomatic alliances, etc).

Comments, etc are requested.

I tried to set up the tabular info to be readable, but I don't know well it'll
turn out on your computer(s)...


This is a brief description of the Mahr language as spoken around 1124 years
after the fall of the Dhïggi Empire.


aspirated stops unaspirated stops       fricatives      affricates      approximants    nasals
ph      p       f       tz      j       m
th      t       x       ts      w       n
kh      k       s       pf      l       ñ

Mahr consonents are not distinguished by voicing. Stops are distinguished by aspiration.
Mahr j is like English y. ñ is ng sing finally, but it is ny canyon before a vowel. Mahr
x is like English th. Mahr z is English sh. Consonents generally become voiced when they
are between vowels.

close   open    middle
í peat  i pit   u put
é pate  e pet   o boat
á father        a pat   õ ought

Word Formation & Stress
Acceptable syllables are [C][a]V[n][C] where [a] is an approximant and [n] is a nasal.
Stress falls on the penultimate closed syllable.

Nouns are inflected for case (Ergative, Absolutive, Dative, Abbessive, Genitive,
Instrumental, Locative) and number (Singular, Dual, Plural). Duals are formed by
prefixing i to the noun stem. Plurals by prefixing a. The openness of the affixes
changes to match that of the noun.

Noun Inflections
        Singular        Dual    Plural  Meaning/Usage
Ergative        -(u)s   i-(u)s  a-(u)s  Subj of Transitive Sentences
Absolutive      -(u)p   i-(u)p  a-(u)p  Subj of Intransitive Sentences
& D. Obj of Transitive Sentences
Dative  -le     i-le    a-le    Motion towards
Abbessive       -em     i-em    a-em    Motion from
Genitive        -ap     i-ap    a-ap    Of/Possession
Instrumental    -an     i-an    a-an    By/with/utilizing
locative        -je     i-je    a-je    In, Near

Generally a noun with close vowels in its stem is feminine, one with open vowels
is masculine, and one with middle vowels is neuter.

Personal pronouns never occur in independantly, they are always attached to either
a noun (showing possession), a verb (prefixed as the subj & suffixed as the object),
or a preposition. Personal pronouns show person, number, and gender.

        Masculine       Feminine        Neuter
1 sing  ti      tí      tu
1 dual  iti     ítí     utu
1 plur  ati     ítí     õtu
2 sing  swe     swé     swo
2 dual  iswe    íswé    uswo
2 plur  asee    áswé    õswo
3 sing  pja     pjá     pjõ
3 dual  ipja    ípjá    upjo
3 plur  apja    ápjá    õpjo

Verbs are inflected for aspect, tense, number, subject, and object.

        Verb Inflections
        Complete        Incomplete
distant past    -í      -ín
recent past     -é      -én
present -       -(õ)n
near future     -e      -en
distant future  -i      -in

A pronoun is then prefixed to show the subject, and another is suffixed
to show the object. Ex.:

        I see him.

        ti          sumphõn                swe

Articles, Adjectives & Adverbs
Articles & adjectives agree with their head for number and gender. Articles
come before the noun; adjectives generally come directly after their noun.
Articles are inflected just like adjectives.

Article Stems
Direct  Indirect
l-      an-

Article & Adjective Inflections
        Masc    Fem     Neut
sing    -e      -é      -o
dual    -i      -í      -u
plur    -a      -á      -õ

        I saw the red (female)dog.
        tisumphé lé páxep kompfé.

        I.sing.masc-see.comp.dpast the.fem.sing dog.sing.abs red.fem.sing

Prepositions & Conjunctions
Several concepts that English conveys with prepositions are translated using
the various Mahr cases. Prepositions take a dative (prepositions dealing with
motion towards), abbessive (motion from), or locative noun (no motion) as
their object. Pronoun objects are suffixed to their preposition. Ex.:

        I went to London.
        tithoñé Londonle.
        I.sing.masc-go.rpast.comp London.dat.sing

        I'm looking at him. (lit. I'm seeing at him.)
        tisumphõn áswe.
        I.sing.masc-see.pres.incomp at.him.sing.masc

        I'm looking at London.
        tisumphõn á Londonle.
        I.sing.masc-see.pres.incomp at London.dat.sing

Word order is fairly free, but generally SVO dominates.