Re: Tama-i update
|From:||H. S. Teoh <hsteoh@...>|
|Date:||Friday, October 3, 2003, 14:03|
Alright, here's the interlinear for the Tama-i version of "The Woman's
Son". (In the process of writing this up, I realized that I had several
blatant incorrectly spelled words. :-( That's the problem with attempting
to derive Tama-i words from Ebisedian on the fly... so if you see
something that doesn't match my previous post, this version is more
1p first person pronoun
dp distant pronoun
ip intimate pronoun
EIMP emphatic imperative
QB Begin quotation
QE End quotation
SUBJ subjective case
hilra bista' bi'lni.
around-ADV woman-ADJ boy-LOC
hicr3 zi'li h3mr3'nei.
within-PRE room-LOC child-PL-CVY/SUBJ
k3'K3 -zd0i zi'l0 h3ki'g3.
cause-V-dp-ORG/SUBJ room-ORG laughter-PL-CVY
kue ll3's zilu bistei'
then-CONJ go-PTCPL room-RCP woman-CVY/SUBJ
k3'ma -t, gi'jli gi'?
shout-V-QB chaos-LOC what-LOC
le's l3'ru hisi'tm.
go-IMP outside-RCP now-LOC-QE
bista' bi'ln0i tau'mat,
woman-ADJ boy-ORG-SUBJ answer-V-QE
his0' mi'mr3n3 hilr3' -sli.
past-ORG child-NUL-CVY around-PRE-1p-LOC
m3ka hisi' h3mr3'n3 hilr3.
but-CONJ now-LOC child-PL-CVY around-PRE
m3ci' ke'g3 -sl0i hilr3 h3'jm0.
so-CONJ laugh-V-1p-ORG-SUBJ with-PRE ip-PL-ORG
k3k3'k gu h3jmei' li's l3'ru -tm?
cause-PTCPL what-RCP ip-PL-CVY-SUBJ go-V outside-RCP-QE
kue -z t0i' k3'mat,
and-CONJ dp-FEM-ORG-SUBJ shout-V-QB
h3zda gi'jl0i k3'k gi -slu f3k3' z3 v33'.
dp-PL-ADJ chaos-ORG-SUBJ cause-V FPN-1p-RCP anguish-CVY and headache-CVY
hale's. hale's m.
go-V-EIMP go-V-EIMP QE
Now, for a bit of etymology for those words which aren't very obvious:
(original Ebisedian form on far right)
1) These prepositions have lost their Ebisedian stress, causing the middle
vowel to elide and produce consonant clusters:
hilra <-- ilir(o) + a <-- ili'ro
hicr3 <-- icuro <-- icu'ro
2) The following features the [?]->[h] sound change, elision of unstressed
_3_ [@\], and diphthong formation with the subjective -i:
h3mr3'nei <-- 3m3r33'n3 + i <-- 3mir33'n3
3) Next, we have a verb inflected for person and case via fusion with a
k3'k3zd0i <-- k3'k(3) + (z)d0i'
k3'k(3) <-- kww'k3 (ka'k3)
(z)d0i' <-- zid0' + i <-- jhid0'
An explanation is in order here. First, the Ebisedian _kww'k3_ became
_k3'k3_ by sound change. Then the final _3_ is elided; however, it is
still "latent"; it re-surfaces when fused with a clitic like _(z)d0i'_.
So the isolated verb is _k3'k_, but when inflected for person, it
Second, all Tama-i pronouns have become cliticized: the initial
syllable from the Ebisedian form has elided, and became "latent".
Stress was lost, and only resurfaces when sentential euphony dictates.
So _jhidi'_, which was _zidi'_ in Early Tama-i, has become just _di'_
when at the beginning of the sentence, or after a word with a final
consonant. But when the previous word has a final vowel (which may be
latent, as here), the latent initial consonant resurfaces. Hence,
k3'k + d0i' ---> k3'k3zd0i
When the original Ebisedian had a *stressed* initial syllable, the
entire syllable resurfaces, as with the masculine pronoun _(si')di_
k3'k + d0i' ---> k3'k3sit0i
Notice that the distinction between the masculine and epicene pronoun
is only visible when the latent consonant surfaces. They are both _di'_
(or _d0i'_ in the originative subjective, as shown here) when
"dormant". Also, in the masculine case, the _d_ becomes a _t_ as
another indirect result of the devoiced latent _s_.
4) Understanding this cliticization is essential to understand another
oddity of Tama-i that shows up in this passage: the quotation clitics.
The Ebisedian _ti_ has lost its vowel; so it attaches to the word
k3'mat <--- k3'ma + t <--- kww'ma + t3
Similarly, its companion _timi_ has lost its vowels as well, and
becomes _tm_ [tm=]. Except that _tm_ is cliticized into _m_ [m=] with a
latent _t_. That's why you have:
l3'rutm <--- l3'ru + (t)m <--- loo'ru + t3m3
But when the _t_ is suppressed by a preceding final consonant:
hale's m <--- ale's + (t)m <--- ale's + t3m3
The latent _t_ may also appear when preceded by a latent vowel, eg:
f3't(3) + (t)m ---> f3't3t m
(How's that for a "tamer" Ebisedian? :-P :-P :-P)
Also, it is worth noting that the original Ebisedian 1st person pronouns
have been superceded by new forms derived from the Ebisedian _sili_. The
gender prefix has become optional. When the gender prefix is absent (eg.
when the pronoun fuses with a verb), the _s_ becomes latent. E.g.:
gisli' ("I", fem)
hesli' ("I", masc)
li' ("I", epicene)
l0i' ("I", org. epi)
t3'ma + l0i' ---> t3'masl0i ("I speak")
(I'll leave reflexives out of this discussion for now, as they are also
derived from _sili_, and can be very confusing for people unfamiliar with
My program has no bugs! Only undocumented features...