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VOCABULARY AID: Basic and Additional Vocabulary (topics 1 - 10)

From:Carsten Becker <naranoieati@...>
Date:Monday, November 29, 2004, 15:57

Time for another vocabulary aid. What I'm posting under this
title during the next time is taken from a little book of
my father's, _Grund und Aufbauwortschatz_ by Klett Verlag,
(c) 1977, 1/1981.

There's much in there that you won't need for a conlang or
stuff you must make fit to your conlang's / -culture's /
-worlds's needs.

Have fun,


1. Numbers

account, amount, average, difference, division, figure,
growth, heap, number, rest, result, sum, variety, zero --
to total -- absolute, all, another, any, different, entire,
every, few, final, first, general, half, immense, many,
one, quite, second, several, single, some, total -- about,
almost, below, frequent, further, once, over, very.

Additional vocabulary:
the four rules, addition, substraction, multiplication,
remainder, fraction, even/odd number, cardinal/ordinal
number, surplus, the multiplication-table problem in
arithmetic, dozen/a score, pile, bulk, to substract, to
multiply, to calculate, to compute, to lessen, to
eliminate, to total up, numerous/countless, innumerable,

2. Measurements and Weights

date, depth, detail, distance, end, equality, fortune, hour,
length, load, measure, mile, minute, month, pair, pause,
quarter, surface, year -- to estimate, to thin, to weigh --
deep, distant, equal, even, farther, great, heavy, high,
irregular, less, light, long, more, most, much, narrow,

Additional vocabulary:
measure of length, square/cubic/liquid measure, an inch, a
foot, a yard, a sqare inch, an acre, a square mile, a cubic
foot, a register ton, a pint, a quart, a gallon, a bushel,
avoirdupois, an ounce, a pound, a stone, a hundredweight, a
ton, breadth, burden, contents, capacity, to enlarge, to
widen, to deepen, to shorten

3. Amounts

barrel, basin, basket, bottle, bowl, box, capital, debt,
division, gift, interests, lot, mass, means, part, plenty,
price, profit, quantity, savings, space, value, worth -- to
class, to deal, to distribute, to gain, to gather, to give,
to increase, to leave, to lend, to lose, to receive, to
reduce, to rise, to ruin -- entirely.

Additional vocabulary:
proportion/mixture, trifle, gap, to deprive s.o. of,
to lower, to diminish, to consume, to contribute (to), to
heap up, sufficient, grave, extremely/compeletely


4. Points in and spaces of time

age, birth, century, date, death, evening, future, holiday,
moment, morning, past, presence, silence, time, year, youth
-- to begin, to fade, to hurry, to last, to pass -- ago,
ancient, due, early, former, future, immediate, late,
original, present, regular, up-to-date, young -- after,
afterwards, all of a sudden, already, at first, again,
finally, gradually, immediately, now, sometimes, soon,
then, till, when.

Additional vocabulary:
period, duration, eternity, present, instant, posterity,
childhood/old age, to elapse, to linger, to cease, to
resume, durable/eternal, primitive, constant,
instantaneous, simultaneously, instantly, previously

5. Calendar

April, August, autumn, century, Christmas, day, December,
Easter, February, Friday, holiday, January, June, July,
March, May, Monday, month, moon, November, October,
Saturday, September, spring, summer, sun, Sunday, Tuesday,
Thursday, Wednesday, week, winter, year -- always, today,
tomorrow, tonight, yesterday.

Additional vocabulary:
calendar, working-day, week-day, leap-year, decade,
birthday, Whitsuntide (Pentecoste), dusk, dawn, twilight, a

6. Time, Clock

afternoon, clock, day, evening, hour, minute, moment,
morning, night, quarter, watch -- to advance, to ring, to
stop -- exact, fast, late, quick, slow -- in the afternoon,
always, this evening, again.

Additional vocabulary:
alarm-clock, (wrist-)watch, dial, long/short hand, sun-dial,
forenoon, quarter of an hour, half an hour, to put back,

III. Outer Space

7. Space and Sky

air, cloud, distance, earth, east, echo, form, heaven,
height, limit, line, material, middle, north, shadow,
shape, sky, south, space, star, sun, surface, temperature,
turn, west, world -- to appear, to light up, to slow up, to
turn -- bright, clear, high, long, natural.

Additional vocabulary:
darnkness, new/full moon, waxing/waining moon, crescent,
sunbeam, eclipse of the sun/moon, sunshine, fixed star,
planet, shooting star, the milky way, celestial body,
pole-star, Charles's wain/The Great Bear, to beam/dazzle,
to revolve (round), to illuminate, to gleam, blazing,
(in)visible, sunburnt

8. Weather

air, blast, cold, degre, drop, fog, heat, ice, rain, shower,
snow, temperature, thunder, weather, wind -- to blow, to
change, to fall, to melt, to rain, to warm, to whistle --
bad, clear, cold, dark, dry, ffine, fresh, hot, rainy,
violent, warm, wet.

Additional vocabulary:
thermometer, barometer, atmospheric pressure, climate, the
tropics, whirlwind, snow-storm/-flake, hurricane,
weather-forecast/-chart, moisture, dew, thunderstorm/-clap,
hail, frost/hoar-frost, heat wave/cold spell, mist,
raindrop/rainbow, cloudburst, thaw, drought, to splash/to
trickle, to rage, to howl, to shiver, to soak, stormy,
changeable/unsettled, foggy, chilly, sultry, moist, damp,
overcast, hazy

9. Geography and Geology

bank, bay, capital, coal, colony, commerce, cotton, country,
course, crossign, discovery, district, earth, gold, grass,
ground, growth, hill, hole, iron, island, land, length,
life, map, mark, market, merchant, metal, mine, mountian,
mouth, mud, nation, native, neighbour, ocean, origin,
outline, passage, path, people, plain, plant, poool, rail,
range, sand, settlement, slope, soil, spring, square,
state, station, stone, stream, street, trade, traffic,
valley, voyage, water, way -- to cover, to extend, to
flood, to flow, to form, to grow, to separate, to shake, to
stretch, to surround -- broad, clear, commercial, deep,
high, local, low, native, plain, pure, rare -- across,
anywher,e apart, around, aside, away, backwards, behind,
below, beneath, near, next, nowhere, over.

Additional vocabulary:
continent mainland, hemisphere, north/south pole, equator,
horizon, summit, ridge, pass, gorge, landslip, glacier,
lake, canal, cave, pasture, heath, highlands, plateau,
boulder, volcano, eruption, marsh, bog, swamp, whirlpool,
eddy, stagnant water, earthquake, waterfall, clearing,
oasis, dike/dam, straits, beach, gulf, the tides, low/high
tide, breakers, isthmus, sluice, ock, inundation, cliff,
sand-bank, promontory, brook, affluent, tributary,
watershed, divide, ford, to submerge, to overflow, to be
outlined against, to burst forth, steep, shallow, extinct,
earthly, earthen, marshy, boggy, swampy, muddy
Europe (European), Germany (German), the United Kingdom of
Great Britain and Northern Ireland (British), England
(English), Ireland (Irish), Scotland (Scottish, Scotch),
Wales (Welsh), Austria (Austrian), Belgium (Belgian), Spain
(Spanish), France (French), Italy (Italian), the
U.S.S.R/the Soviet Union (Soviet-(Russian)), Switzerland
(Swiss), the Netherlands (Dutch), Sweden (Swedish), Denmark
(Danish), Norway (Norwegian), Greece (Greek), Africa
(African), Asia (Asian), China (Chinese), Japan (Japanese),
America (American), The United States of America
(American), Australia (Australian), London, Dublin,
Edinburgh, Vienna, Brussels, Rome, Leghorn, Moscow, the
Hague, Tokyo, Washington, Canberra
the Straight of DOver, the English Channel, the Irish Sea,
the Pennine Chain, the Shetland Islands, the ORkney
Islands, the Isle of Wight, the North Sea, the Atlantic
Ocean, the Mediterranean, the Alps, the Pyrenees, the Rocky
Mountains, the Appalachians, the Great Lakes

10. Space, Length in Space

base, bottom, centre, corner, course, crossing, difference,
direction, distance, end, entrance, extension, extent,
front, haste, height, hurry, length, middle, place,
quarter, range, spot, step, surface, zone -- to cover, to
creep, to develop, to distinguish, to divide, to drive, to
drop, to ente,r to escape, to extend, to fall, to fasten,
to find, to flow, to fly, to fold, to follow, to gather, to
handle, to head, to hold, to hurry, to inculde, to jump, to
keep, to lean, to leave, to lie, to lift, to lower, to
pass, to place, to ride, to rock, to roll, to run, to
shake, to sink, to sit, to slide, to slip, to spread, to
stand, to turn, to twist -- aboard, abroad, absent, calm,
different, distant, distinct, empty, flat, high, irregular,
large, left, level, local, long, quick, right, round, wide
-- across, after, against, ahead, around, aside,
backward(s), before, below, beneath, beside, between,
beyond, close, contrary, down, farther, here, inside, of,
under, up, upper, upstairs, upwards, where.

Additional vocabulary:
expanse, dimension, vacuum, extremity, frontier, boundary,
neighbourhood, remoteness, upper part, to expand, to hover,
to soar up, to descend, extensive, widespread, voluminous,
bulky, centrally located, spacious, comprehensive,

Eri silveváng aibannama padangin.
Nivaie evaenain eri ming silvoieváng caparei.
- Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Le Petit Prince


Roger Mills <rfmilly@...>