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Re: Making your language sound nice

From:John Vertical <johnvertical@...>
Date:Sunday, June 15, 2008, 20:26
On Sun, 15 Jun 2008 10:48:46 -0700, Michael Martin wrote:
>"Liquids" is a term I'm not too familiar with. Which consonants are liquids?
>What other types of consonants are there?
Stops: Consonants that involve temporarily closing the vocal tract. Includes [p b t d k g]. These typical ones are also called plosives for their caracteristic release. Fricatives: Consonants with a near-closure of the vocal tract, which causes friction-like sound when the airflo passes thru. Includes [f v s z x]. Sibilants: Fricatives pronounced with the tongue in a grooved shape, to produce strong, high-pitched noice. Includes [s z S Z] but not eg. [f h]. Affricates: Stops that are released in a fricative-like (usually, more exactly, sibilant-like) fashion; transcribed as such, too. Includes [pf ts dz tS dZ]. Obstruents: Stops, affricates and fricatives. Sonorants: The opposite of obstruents. As such, this technically also includes vowels. Continuants: Everything except stops. Vowels count here, too. Nasals: Technically stops, but pronounced with the nasal passage open so there's no obstruction of airflo. Includes [m n]. Taps: Very short stops without explosion. Usually rhotics. Rarely contrasted with flaps. Flaps: As it says, quickly brushing an articulator against another. Usually rhotics. Rarely contrasted with taps. The X-SAMPA [4] may mean either a tap or a flap (an alveolar one). Trills: Pronounced by vibrating one articulator; usually with an effect of a flurry of taps or flaps. Usually rhotic. Includes [r]. Rhotics: An ill-defined class of "r-like" sounds that includes most taps, flaps and trills, some guttural fricatives, and certain approximants. Approximants: Consonants that do not obstruct the passage of air thru the vocal tract. Laterals: Consonants articulated by raising the middle of the tongue to the palate, but not the edges, so that air must pass laterally. [l] is a lateral approximant; lateral fricatives and affricates are also possible. Semivowels: Approximants that are pronounced basically the same as some vowel or another. Includes [j w] (the consonantal forms of [i u]). Also called glides. Liquids: Sonorants that aren't nasals or semivowels, ie. lateral approximants and most rhotics. I'm actually not sure if non-semivowel, non-lateral, non-rhotic approximants, like let's say a dental approximant, would count as liquids… That's it for manners of articulation. I'm not going to go into places of articulation or further details like voicing here… John Vertical