Re: Making your language sound nice
|From:||John Vertical <johnvertical@...>|
|Date:||Sunday, June 15, 2008, 20:26|
On Sun, 15 Jun 2008 10:48:46 -0700, Michael Martin wrote:
>"Liquids" is a term I'm not too familiar with. Which consonants are liquids?
>What other types of consonants are there?
Stops: Consonants that involve temporarily closing the vocal tract. Includes
[p b t d k g]. These typical ones are also called plosives for their
Fricatives: Consonants with a near-closure of the vocal tract, which causes
friction-like sound when the airflo passes thru. Includes [f v s z x].
Sibilants: Fricatives pronounced with the tongue in a grooved shape, to
produce strong, high-pitched noice. Includes [s z S Z] but not eg. [f h].
Affricates: Stops that are released in a fricative-like (usually, more
exactly, sibilant-like) fashion; transcribed as such, too. Includes [pf ts
dz tS dZ].
Obstruents: Stops, affricates and fricatives.
Sonorants: The opposite of obstruents. As such, this technically also
Continuants: Everything except stops. Vowels count here, too.
Nasals: Technically stops, but pronounced with the nasal passage open so
there's no obstruction of airflo. Includes [m n].
Taps: Very short stops without explosion. Usually rhotics. Rarely contrasted
Flaps: As it says, quickly brushing an articulator against another. Usually
rhotics. Rarely contrasted with taps. The X-SAMPA  may mean either a tap
or a flap (an alveolar one).
Trills: Pronounced by vibrating one articulator; usually with an effect of a
flurry of taps or flaps. Usually rhotic. Includes [r].
Rhotics: An ill-defined class of "r-like" sounds that includes most taps,
flaps and trills, some guttural fricatives, and certain approximants.
Approximants: Consonants that do not obstruct the passage of air thru the
Laterals: Consonants articulated by raising the middle of the tongue to the
palate, but not the edges, so that air must pass laterally. [l] is a lateral
approximant; lateral fricatives and affricates are also possible.
Semivowels: Approximants that are pronounced basically the same as some
vowel or another. Includes [j w] (the consonantal forms of [i u]). Also
Liquids: Sonorants that aren't nasals or semivowels, ie. lateral
approximants and most rhotics.
I'm actually not sure if non-semivowel, non-lateral, non-rhotic
approximants, like let's say a dental approximant, would count as liquids
That's it for manners of articulation. I'm not going to go into places of
articulation or further details like voicing here