USAGE: Authoritative Early Lahabic Phonology
|From:||Anthony M. Miles <theophilus88@...>|
|Date:||Tuesday, June 6, 2000, 19:29|
Here is the authoritative Early Lahabic phonology, with allophones and
basic transliteration. The Gweinic rules of root formation still hold.
p=[p]-plain voiceless bilabial stop
ph=[p<h>]-aspirated voiceless bilabial stop
py=[p^]-palatalized voiceless bilabial stop
b=[b]-plain voiced bilabial stop
bh=[b<h>]-aspirated voiced bilabial stop
by=[b^]-palatalized voiced bilabial stop
bw=[b<w>]-labiovelarized voiced bilabial stop
2. Dental and Alveolars
t=[t[, t]-plain voiceless dental or alveolar stop
th=[t[<h>, t<h>]-aspirated voiceless dental or alveolar stop
ty=[t[^]-palatalized voiceless dental stop
d=[d[, d]-plain voiced dental or alveolar stop
dh=[d[<h>, d<h>]-aspirated voiced dental or alveolar stop
dy=[d[^]-palatalized voiced dental stop
dw=[d<w>]-labiovelarized voiced alveolar stop
Dental stops become alveolars before back vowels o and u. Palatalization and
labiovelarization interfere with this process. Palatalization negates its
and labiovelarization mandates it.
k=[k]-plain voiceless velar stop
kh=[k<h>]-aspirated voiceless velar stop
ky=[k^]-palatalized voiceless velar stop
kw=[k<w>]-labiovelarized voiceless velar stop
g=[g]-plain voiced velar stop
gh=[g<h>]-aspirated voiced velar stop
gy=[g^]-palatalized voiced velar stop
gw=[g<w>]-labiovelarized voiced velar stop
m=[m,m<vls>,n,n[<vls>,N,N<vls>]- labial nasal
n=[n,n[<vls>,m,m<vls>,N,N<vls>]- dental and alveolar nasal
Nasals assume the same point of articulation as a following stop or
nasal and assume the voice of a following stop. For the change from a dental
nasal to an alveolar nasal, see A.2 above.
See A.2 above
r=[r[,r]-voiced dental and alveolar approximant
j=[j]-voiced palatal approximant
w=[w]-voiced labiovelar approximant
h=[h]-voiced glottal approximant.
z(formerly s)=[D,T,z]-dental and alveolar fricative
For D>Z see A.2. For D>T see B.
A. Simple Vowels
a=[a] low central unrounded vowel
e=[e] uppermid front unrounded vowel. [e] becomes the lowmid front unrounded
vowel [E] in unstressed positions.
o=[o] uppermid back rounded vowel. [o] becomes the lowmid back rounded vowel
[O] in unstressed positions.
i=[i] high front unrounded vowel. [i] becomes the semihigh front unrounded
vowel [I] in unstressed positions.
u=[u] high back rounded vowel. [u] becomes the semihigh back rounded vowel
[U] in unstressed positions.
Long vowels are indicated by gemination.
Diphthongs are always long. The second form is used in unstressed
III. Transliteration Differences from Classical Labic
Classical Labic has almost the same sounds, with the following
1. ou [ow,Ow] has become [u:], u has become [y]. ei [ej,Ej] has been
transferred to secondary [ej] (note that this does not include [Ej]) because
primary [ej,Ej] has become [e:,E:]
2. Due to the influence of Maradic loanwords, the single phoneme z
[D, T, z] becomes the two phonemes z [D,T] and s [z].
3. h disappears as an independent phoneme.
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