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Re: How to do "But/However"

From:Chris Bates <chris.maths_student@...>
Date:Sunday, March 12, 2006, 16:33
>I thought of using "and" as usual with the second clause (the Z) marked >with the counterfactual, but :) that seems wrong somehow. So I ask: > >1. How do your conlangs handle but/however? >2. How do natlangs handle but/however differently from IE? > > >
I can give at least one alternative way of handling but from some Papuan languages, but you might find it difficult to employ unless you have a verb chaining system in your conlang. Basically, in these languages each verb is marked for its relationship to the next verb in the chain: whether the verbs share a subject, whether there is temporal overlap or succession, and so on. Well, in some verb chaining Papuan languages there's an affix on some verbs that does a similar job to "but" in English: ko-nejapowo'nIngk-ahonIngk-i nakwo jomo mujo'njo ANTI-always gives us-SEQ-3SG(DS) we ask not speak to him "He always gives us but we don't pray to him" Syoho yakumpohn'nyo ko-imalog-o-so hamnoyoho engo muyofoho work strong ANTI-do-they-and money much not give "They worked hard but not much money was given to them" The ko- on the first verb marks that there's some form of frustration or expectancy reversal between that verb and the following verb. The interesting thing here I guess is that ko- is marked by a prefix on the verb before where the "but" would be in English... The source of these examples was "Language Typology and Syntactic Description" by Shopen (I've been borrowing reading material from the Uni library recently). I have to say though, some of the Basque examples in that book are so very very wrong that I can't vouch for the complete accuracy of these examples.


Roger Mills <rfmilly@...>