Formation of words from Spanish into Aingeljã
|From:||Ángel Serrano <aingelja@...>|
|Date:||Friday, September 27, 2002, 9:39|
Hi, I send you some basic rules to create words in Aingeljã from their Spanish version.
Here we go:
* -CIÓN => -CJÕ. POSICIÓN => POSICJÕ (position).
* -CIA => -ZA. VALENCIA => VALENZA (Valencia, Spanish city); CODICIABLE => CODIZABEL (desiderable).
* -AVO, -EVO, -IVO, -OVO => -AU, -EU, -IU, -OU. YUGOSLAVO => JUGOSLAU
(Yugoslavian); NUEVO => NOU (new); ADJETIVO => AJETIU (adjective). This
sometimes happens with other endings: MANCHEGO => MANCHEU (from La Mancha,
Spanish region); GALLEGO => GALEU (Galician).
* An L before consonant usually changes into U: CÁLIDO =
CAUDE (warm), ALGUNO = AUCU~ (some); ALMA => AUMA (soul).
* The ending N's in words like MANO (hand), CAMINO (way), DESAYUNO (breakfast),
IMPLICACIÓN (implication), etc, are lost, but the vowels retain a nasal tilde:
MÃ, CHAMI~, DISAIXÕ, IMPLICACJÕ, etc. Their plural is formed adding -NS
(masculine) or -NAS (femenine): MÃNAS, CHAMI~NS, DISAIXÕNS, IMPLICACJÕNAS.
* -DAD and other words ending in -AD, -ED, -UD lose their ending D, but retain a
grave tilde (`). UNIVERSIDAD => UNIVERSITÀ (university), LIBERTAD => LLUWERTÀ
(liberty), MERCED => MERÇÈ (favour, mercy), VIRTUD => VIRTÙ (virtue). Their
plural is formed adding -TAS: UNIVERSITÀTAS, LLUWERTÀTAS, MERÇÈTAS,
VIRTÙTAS (they retain the tilde).
* -CT- => -T-. ACTOR => ATOR (actor); OCHO => OTE (eight).
* -PT- => -IT-. SIETE => SEIT (seven); ACEPTAR => ACEITRE (to accept); NEPTUNO => NEITU~ (Neptune).
* -GN- => -IN-. MAGNÉTICO => MAINETIC (magnetic).
* -AJE, -EJE, -OJE, -UJE, and in general all the syllables with the sound /x/ =>
-AIX, -EIX, -OIX, -UIX, respectively. Ex: LENGUAJE
=> LANGAIX (language), ÁGIL => AIXIL (agile), AGUJA => ACUIXA (needle), BAJO =>
BAIX (under), HOJA => FOIXA (leave), LIGERO => LEIXER (light). This sometimes
happens with other endings: RUSIA => RUIXJA (Russia), FRESA => FREIXA
(strawberry), JUEZ => JUDJEIX (judge), NIEVE => NJEIX (snow), from Latin
Nominative NIX), CROACIA => CRWAIXJA (Croatia), CÁDIX => CAIX (Cadix, Spanish
* Soundless consonants which became sound in Spanish are retained.
Ex: AGUJA => ACUIXA (needle); CODO => COT (elbow); CUBRIR => COPRÂRE (to cover);
TOLEDO => TOLET (Toledo, Spanish city).
* In some Spanish hiatuses, a new D between vowels appears: CREER => CREDRE (to
beleave, and also to create); CAÍDA => CADUTA (fall).
* Diminutive -ITO, -ITA are -ELL, -ELLA: LLUVIA => PLUGGA (rain);
CHUBASCO/LLOVIZNA => PLUGGELLA (rain shower or "little rain").
* TRANS- => TRAS-. TRANSPORTE => TRASPORT (transport).
* IN- => UN- (Germanic influence). IMPOSIBLE => UMPOSIBEL (impossible).
* -BLE => -BEL. INVISIBLE => UNVIDABEL (invisible), from VIDRE = VER (to see).
Also: DIABLO => DJABEL (devil).
* -BS- => -S-. ABSOLUTO => ASOLUT (absolute).
* Many intervocalic V disappear and become W or U. CLAVAR => CLAURE (to nail),
EVA => EWA (Eve, female name), VIVIR => VJURE (to live), UVA => UWA (grape).
Sometimes also with B: BEBER => BEURE (to drink).
* -IZAR => -IÇRE. GENERALIZAR => GGENERALIÇRE (to generalize). The same for
many verbs ending in -ZAR, -CER, -CIR, etc. NACER => NAÇRE (to be born), COCER
=> COÇRE (to cook, to boil), PRODUCIR => PRODUÇRE (to produce), ABRAZAR =>
IMBRAÇRE (to embrace, to hug).
* Initial L usually becomes palatal, especially if Catalan does the same:
LÉRIDA => LLERDA (Lérida, Spanish city, Lleida in Catalan), LENGUA => LLINGWA
(tongue), LUGO => LLUC (Lugo, Spanish city), LECHE => LLAT (milk), LIBRE =>
* -ICO, -ICA => -IC, -ICA. MECÁNICO => MECANIC (mechanic), BRITÁNICO =>
BRITANIC (British), BÉLGICA => BELGGICA (Belgium).
* Initial G sometimes becomes palatal (GG), and sometimes is velar plosive
sound: GENIO => GGENN (genius), ALEMANIA => GGERMANNA (Germany), GUIPÚZCOA =>
GIPUSQWA (Guipúzcoa, Spanish city), GEMELO => GEMELL (twin).
* Hiatus ÍA often loses its accent and becomes the diphthong JA: HUNGRÍA =>
HONGRJA (Hungary), ALMERÍA => ALMERJA (Almería, Spanish city), TURQUÍA =>
That's all. Any questions or suggestions??
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