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[SHOEBOX] answers to David and jeff

From:BP Jonsson <bpj@...>
Date:Friday, July 21, 2000, 15:07
At 06:22 21.7.2000 -0400, The Gray Wizard wrote:

>Since I have effectively created a [SHOEBOX] tagged thread here, I have a >question for other Shoeboxers out there. amman iar has an auxiliary verb >form that is semantically empty, serving only to specify the grammatical >usage (mood [prefix], aspect[infix], tense [suffix]) of the lexical verb and >as such has no root form, only affixes. Shoebox will refuse to parse a word >without a root. As a work around I have arbitrarily selected the mood affix >(which is always required and happens to be a prefix) as the root form. Is >there a better way to do this?
Does the verb actually not *have* a root, or is it that being semantically empty it cannot really be glossed? Assuming it is the latter, it would seem a good idea to gloss it as 'AUX'; the use of _do_ in English often approaches this, as in: Does John read books? AUX -s John read -0 book -s AUX -3.SG. PN V -INF S -PL As you can see I make use of the null morpheme //0// as a device to hang tags on. I imagine you could provide a lexical form which de_fact consists of only affixes and endings with a null root. I've never really done this in Shoebox, but I did once play with the idea of a Romance artauxlang having the three auxiliaries ar < HABERE -- forming perfect er < ESSE(RE) -- forming passive and progressive ir < IRE -- forming future whose roots //a e i// thus coincided with the theme vowels of the three conjugations. I would probably have made the morphemic analysis along the lines of //a+ar, e+er, i+ir//, since the verbs in question arguably had a "meaning" of sorts, but IMOO //0+ar// &c. would have been valid as well. ho Jeff Sheets egraphe de:
>Certain things that Shoebox doesn't handle gracefully in the alternate >forms bit is recognizing vowel harmony. At least I haven't found a good >way to do that, except to input all alternate forms. Blegh.
In one book about Finnish morphology that I have they list alternating morphemes like -sta~-stä 'out of' with an underlying form //-stA//, letting the //A// morphophoneme being changed to a/ä at the morphophonemic--phonemic level. Look in the help file for "Preventing Incorrect Parses" and "Morphophonemics" for hints on how it may be done. One way of implementing this practically might be to tag all back-vowel roots in the lexicon with an underlying form adding a later deleted dummy affix //-H// which triggers the right affix form. More elegant still would be a rules file which progressively change //AOU// into /aou/ after preceeding /aou/ and /äöy/ otherwise. Look up the topic "Reduplication", "Infixes" and "Context Sensitivity—Preventing Incorrect Parses" in the help file for suggestions how VH may be handled more elegantly, and look at "Adapt3a", where The notation "C*" is used for zero or more instances of "C". (I've tried to look where the * convention is defined, but couldn't find it, so presumably it is hard-wired into Shoebox.) It might look like: \lx -stA \a -sta \a -stä \u stA \ps ninfl \ge ELATIVE \ge out of I would use a rule along the lines of the one in Adapt3a: Shortening of vowels in verbal nouns (31) \ru [C][Vl][C][C*]# [C][Vs][C][C*]# Which may be adapted thus: Finnish Vowel Harmony \ru [Vb][C*][V] [Vb][C*][Vb] \co Vb = back vowels I'm positing a greater number of underlying alternants/vowel morphophonemes than actually occurs at the surface. VH ignores /i/ and /e/, for which reason it is convenient to posit back vowels //ï// and //ë// which merge with the front //i e// at the surface level. Incidentally this is an actual historical sound-change, as shown by the fact that Estonian has a mid back unrounded vowel {õ} corresponding to Finnish /e/ in words that used to have back harmony, like Est. _põld_ vs. Fi. _pelto_ 'field', also some Finnish /i/s do cause t_ > s, and some /i/s don't -- presumably the latter are //ï//. I prefer taking front vowels /äöy/ as basic and /aou/ as secondary, since words containing only the "neutral" vowels /ie/ take front vowel affixes. It occurs to me that such an approach may work also with umlaut, by positing underlying //ï// and //ë// (historically *i: and *i), causing umlaut and then merging with //e// and zero respectively on the surface, as in German //mann+ïr// -> _Männer_ (pl. of _Mann_) and //grab+ët// -> _gräbt_ ( of _graben_ 'dig'). (Note that the Shoebox docs talk about "underlying forms" while I prefer a historical approach "*a became *ä before *ï/*ë, then *ï was lost and *ë merged with *e, leaving /ä/ as a phoneme". The net result is the same, IMHO.) Again I have had no occasion to try any of this myself, so I don't know if it really works. Actually I don't know how one should make Shoebox make the right assosciations between members of the [V] and [Vb] sets -- possibly by defining a set of Harmony Vowels [Vh] as suffix vowels [Vx] with following w, so that VH turns //AOU// into //Aw Ow Uw// after [Vb], with later rules cleaning up AOU+w into aou and AOU without following w into äöy. This suggests that -w- should be handled as an infix at some point. kai h'autos Jeff men: At 17:00 20.7.2000 -0400, Jeff Sheets wrote:
>In a message dated 7/20/00 12:36:31 PM Central Daylight Time, bpj@NETG.SE >writes: > > > Has anyone attempted implementing soundchanges in Shoebox? So far all my > > attempts have implemented headache in me ony! > >My current project takes root phonemes and applies a sound changes rule file >to them, which more often than not drastically changes the pronunciation. In >my previous post I gave the example of: > >\uf feg - qin - lo - as - yu >\sf feqrinlez >\mg admit - future - complete - I - PL > >You can see that the combination of g-q becomes qr, the combination of o-a >becomes e, and the combination of s-yu becomes z.
I've mulled over this. It seems to me you would actually want a rules file like "\Shoebox\Samples\Adapt\Adapt2b\EngPhon.rul" for this: \ru g -q qr \ru z -yu z and so on. In this way you won't need to list all possible morpheme sequences in the lexicon, I think. /BP -- B.Philip Jonsson <bpX@...> <melroch@...> ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ "Truth, Sir, is a cow which will give [skeptics] no more milk, and so they are gone to milk the bull." -- Sam. Johnson (no rel. ;)