Theiling Online    Sitemap    Conlang Mailing List HQ   

LONG: Another new lang

From:Paul Bennett <paul.bennett@...>
Date:Monday, October 25, 1999, 16:09
Here's another one.


A sister lang to s[aghwaad<zi, of a close branch, that hasn't
collapsed as much yet.  This is potentially an "intermediary" lang
between Wewnetaak and S[aghwaad<zi

(wewnetaak =3D wenetaic, s[aghwaad<zi =3D thaghojian)

Provisional name is <mein=E1nuagh=E1> after the model of the other two,=

all three names mean "of the people".

The mein=E1n describe the s[aghwaad<zi (<thagojians>) as "grunting and
growling like animals", due to the size and nature of the s[aghwaad<zi
consonontal phonology.

Meanwhile, the s[aghwaad<zi describe the mein=E1nuagh=E1 as "mewling li=
infants", due to the size and richness of the mein=E1nuagh=E1 vowel

Set tabs at 8 and use a fixed font to read properly

Diacritics for quick reference are aeiou with acutes: =E1=E9=ED=F3=FA

Some of the examples are a bit shoddy.

All comments appreciated.


Phonology and Orthography

Approximate IPA
Stops          Nasals    Fricat    Affric     Approxmants
p    b    m    f         w
               T    t[T
t    d    n    s    ts   r
               S    tS   l    j
k    g    N    x

Actual Romanisation
p    b    m    ph        w
               th   dth
t    d    n    s    z    r
               sh   ch   l    gh
c    g    gn   h


Orthog    English   M-uagh=E1   IPA
a    dart d=E1rt script-a
ae   dad  daed ash
ai   died d=E1id a smallcap-i
ao   doubt     daot script-a turned-smallcap-omega
au   daunt     d=E1unt     turned-c
e    debt det  e
ei   date d=E9it e smallcap-i
i    disk disc smallcap-i
ie   deep d=EDep i
iu   wood wiud turned-smallcap-omega
o    dot  dot  turned-script-a
oa   don't     d=F3ant     schwa turned-smallcap-omega
oi   boy  boi  turned-c smallcap-i
ou   north     nouth     turned-c schwa
u    dug  dug  wedge
ua   ago  uag=F3a     schwa
uo   doom d=FAom u

Vowel (or first vowel) is acuted (<'> in ascii) to show length.

Nouns roots are usually CVC(VC), verb roots are usually CVCV.

There are three alphabetic orders;

The Anglicised order matches the English alphabetic order.

The Romanised order is: (each of the following are considered as single=
a b c ch d dth e g gh h i l m n gn o p ph r s sh t th u w z
Multi-vowel clusters are listed in "English" alphabetical order and
are not treated as seperate letters.

The Native order can be found by reading the table above in row-by-row
order, with vowels interleaved as follows: (each of the following are
considered as single letters)
p a b ua m ae ph uo w o th iu dth oa t d au n s oi z u r ai i sh ch ie
l gh e c ei g gn ao h

An apostrophe is used in romanisations to disambiguate words that
would otherwise be homographs.  The native alphabet distinguishes each
phone with its own glyph.

Dictionaries, glossaries and lexicons exist in all three alphabetic


The grammar is a mixed ergative-absolute / dechticaetative system.
The system distiguishes the following cases (this also shows the usual
word order): /* It's an horrendous abuse of the term "volitive", any
better suggestions? */

>Intransitive Verb
Verb - Inflected for Subject Subject - Absolute
>Passive (Di)Transitive Verb with Exophoric Subject (and Ind Obj)
Verb - Inflected with <-h> Object - Absolute
>Transitive Verb
Subject - Ergative Verb - Inflected for Subject Object - Absolute
>Ditransitive Verb
Subject - Volitive Indirect Object - Ergative Verb - Inflected for Indirect Object Direct Object - Absolute
>Ditransitive Verb with Exophoric Indirect Object
Subject - Volitive Verb - Inflected with <-h> Direct Object - Absolute The above cases are marked by unbound prefixes, shown as below: Def Indef Abs. oa 0 Erg. an an Vol. eiz eim Further case categorisations are shown by postpositions, as below: Illative. -eighi (moving into/towards) Elative. -aughi (moving out of) Adessive. -=E1ruo (placed at, near, outside of) Inessive. -en (placed within) Component Gen. -eich (x y-eich =3D x is part of y) /* should this be <y= -eich x> ?*/ Habitual Gen. -uagh=E1 (associated with (see above)) Possessive. -eshau (owned by (see above)) Attributive. -ar=E1e (marks the object of a copula as being temporary= ) Essive. -=E1th (marks the object of a copula as being permanent)= Intensive. -(oi)gn (marks an intensification in degree of either of the above; the forms used are -ar=E1egn and -=E1thoign) /* same remarks and question as for <-eich, -uagh=E1, -eshau> apply to these three */ Gender is shown by the following markers Pronoun Verbs Copula Neg.Cp. Gender mei -m em neim Me sei -s esi nes You t=ED -t etiu neit Common (Animate) tuor -r eir ne Neuter (Inanimate) seim -mius s=EDm nes=EDm Me & You (Inclusive 1st Dual) teim -miut t=EDm net=EDm Me & Other (Exclusive 1st Plural) =F3astiu -st=E1 aest nast You & Other (2nd Plural) moast -staem maest nam=E9ist Me, You & Other (Inclusive 1st Plu= ral) t=EDun -n=E1t =E9int n=E9i Common Plural r=FAon -n=E1r aert nai Neuter Plural "Other" above is either Common or Neuter, and either singular or plural= . Pronouns take articles for Ergativity (and other grammatical devices) like any other noun. Plurals (obviously) are handled solely as above (and not be umlaut). Copula and Negative Copula are treated in all other respects (except for their irregularity) as verbs. Verbs inflect for the Ergative noun, if present. In intransitive sentences, copula inflects for the gender of the subject. When they are inflected by case markings, pronouns that end in vowels take an epithentic <-h> for euphony. Verbal Noun Endings -c Final result of verb -w One who does the verb -h That which has the verb done to it Inflected case forms of nouns that end in vowels have an adjectival nature in translation, and are grammatically verbs, therefore they may take the above markers to "turn them back into nouns". Plural marking Plurals are marked by umlaut. A given vowel may occur in several single/plural pairs, sometimes as the single and sometimes as the plural, therefore the plural system can be thought of as irregular for all intents and purposes. Certain small plurals (known as "counted plurals") are shown by combining the following bound prefixes with the singular form of the noun: 2 d=EDu- 3 th=EDe- 5 aegni- 10 dagi- Aspect, mood and tense Verbs take the following affixes to show various elements of aspect, mood and tense. Imperative replace inflection with <-z> Jussive insert <-zoa-> before the inflection Past Insert <-gniu-> before the inflection Progressive Insert <-dtha-> before the inflection Passive Insert <-cei-> before the inflection Some examples: Mortiuzoah oa maen=E1n! die.JUSS.INTR ABS man The man must die! Mortiuzoaceih oa maen=E1n! die.JUSS.PASS ABS man The man must be killed! Mortiudthah oa maen=E1n. die.PROG.INTR ABS man The man is dying. (In the process of dying) (Contrast with: Mortiudthat oa maen=E1n. die.PROG.G3 ABS man The man is killing.) An maen=E1n etiu mortiuwar=E1e ERG man COP.G3 die.ACT.TMP The man is dying. (At the moment of death) An maen=E1n etiu mortiuc=E1th. ERG man COP.G3 die.RES.ESS The man is dead. (Literally, "the man is a corpse") Eiz maen=E1n phl=F3sieh oa plaith=EDen. VOL man fill.INTR ABS bucket The man fills the bucket (with something). Contrast with the following two examples: An catuor phl=F3sier oa plaith=EDen. ERG water fill.G4 ABS bucket The water flows into the bucket. Eiz maen=E1n an catuor phl=F3sier oa plaith=EDen. VOL man ERG water fill.G4 ABS bucket The man fills the bucket with water. An seim pheignomius oa weinaer. ERG we fight.G1+G2 ABS wenetaic-plural You & I fight the Wewnets. An =F3astiu aest phaegnow=E1th. ERG G2+G3 COP people-who-fight.PERM You (Plural) are warriors (and always will be). Eiz teim an l=FAocuaneighic ph=E1enuor oa lign=F3as sei= heich. VOL us-EXC ERG here.illative.RES want.g4 ABS language you.COMP (Latest attempt at "your language goes here") = ************************************************************* This email and any files transmitted with it are confidential and intended solely for the use of the individual or entity to whom they are addressed. If you have received this email in error please notify the sender. This footnote also confirms that this email message has been scanned for the presence of computer viruses. *************************************************************