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Relays, Link 3

From:Shreyas Sampat <nsampat@...>
Date:Monday, August 27, 2001, 17:29
Roger Mills' Kash Text:
alo haniyuwi e parahambesayi :

manushimsa ri cinini añoramba--
ri añorambani yale andarak cashuku, mahandrep ri ondiyeni angumor--
ritan ri angumondri mandu mahan e hindan--
ri hindañi matromat yurumbi yam kashile--
i kashilani me irumaran prashehakinda--
e prashehakindani me ikendra.

From the mind of the Creator:

I was alone in the midst of darkness--
in the darkness was deafening noise, I withdrew into silence--
there in the silence by myself I created the world--
in the world I found my place with the people--
the people named (=acknowledged) me as god--
as their god they worshipped me.


alo haniyu-i   e  parahambesa-i
prep  noun-gen  art. noun-gen

ma-nushim-sa   ri   cini-ni  añ-oramba
1sg-verb-past  loc.  noun(acc)-3poss  noml-verb

ri   añ-oramba-ni  ya-ale  añ-narak ca-shuku   ma-handrep  ri ondi-e-ni
loc. noml-vb-3poss 3s-vb noml-vb accid-vb  1sg-verb   loc  noun-dat-3poss

ri   añ-kumor-ni   mam-tu  ahan   e hinda-n
loc noml-vb(acc)-3poss.  1s(nom)-refl.  vb.  def.  noun-acc

ri    hinda-n-ni   ma-tromat   yurun-mi  yam   kash-il-e
loc  noun-acc-3poss  1sg-vb  noun-1poss  prep  noun-pl-dat

i   kash-ila    me   i-rum-aran  pra-shehama-hinda-ni
conj  noun-(nom)pl  1dat  3pl-caus-noun  hon-noun-noun3poss

i   e    pra-shehama-hinda-ni    me   i-kendra
conj  def.  hon-noun-noun3poss   1dat  3pl-verb


The def. article /e/:  used mainly with personal names, titles, place names
or abstracts (e.g. "_the truth_ will make you free")
Noun cases:  nom(inative) is unmarked;  gen(itive); dat(ive); acc(usative)
is marked only for animates. See NOTES re (1) possessive suffix -ni (2)
unmarked nouns with compound prepositions.
Verbal:  The first vb. establishes tense; succeeding vbs are unmarked.
ma- 1st pers. sing. subject; ya- 3d sing. subj. (the /a/ elides before
verb-initial /a-/; i- 3d  plural subj.;  caus(ative); accid(ental) forms
connote unpleasant/undesirable states 'overcome by...; to get (verbed)'.
Prefix añ- forms abstract nouns from verb/adj.

In the last 2 lines, there are "double accusatives"-- e.g. call X(dat.)


alo (prep.)   from (+genitive)

haniyu  soul, mind, consciousness

parahambesa  The Creator, lit. The First Cause; an abstraction to the Kash.
Compounded of  par-~pra- 'honorific pfx.'  ahan 'create, invent, devise'
mesa 'one'
nushim  alone
ri (prep.)  locative:  with acc. in, at; with dat. to, into
cini  middle
oramba  (be) dark
ale  to be
narak  (be) loud
shuku  (be) deaf
handrep  to retreat, withdraw
ondi  inside, interior
kumor  (be) silent
ritan   there, in that place
mam  1 sing. pron.  +tu  reflexive, intensified;
ahan  create, invent, devise
hinda (anim.)  the earth, the world
tromat  to find
yurun  place
yam (prep)  with
kash  person; pl. people
aran name; rumaran to name/appoint (transitive)
shehama  spirit-- this compound is as close as the Kash can get to the idea
of a "God" who watches over/is involved with mundane and human affairs.
kendra  to worship, venerate


Word order is generally S-V-O (but not in the last line!); clitic O and IO
pronouns precede the verb.
(1) the 3 pers. poss. suffix -ni:  both sing. and plur.  (note nasal
> -ñi). Also, it can serve as a sort of definite article, referring back
to old material. Also, it serves to indicate a possessive structure involving an inanimate, e.g. "rock of ages" could be cangandri amarash (cangar 'rock' ni, amarash 'ages')-- this is the usage we see in compound prepositions. Also, colloquially (not here) Verb is equivalent to nominal añ + verb 2) Compound prepositions, like ri cini-ni NOUN: the noun (the actual object of the prep.) is unmarked (i.e. nom.) for case. Mia Soderquist's Mijador: Ad savto líle emno. Ne jepxe ehal bo nexen leso nefe. Nefe etde. Ne jepxe ehal nefe bo nexen leso nefe dade akwal ehad wa ne gaixe et nefe, "Kor ete ax ixodex fuwijan níbe ad nara?". Dade ehad ne gaixe, ad emno et ne gaixe, "Bra lagaeta txetxe, la ijíya emno, hron brayín la etda, do ixero et la, "Kor akwo do níbe ad nara?" Dade ehad nefe gaixe, ne gaixe,"Don fuwija ujofe lan kea wa jepxe moraxna." Ehad olere kwanaf haver. A woman is taking care of a boy. She makes him go into the house. He's playing. Because he's doing this, she makes him go into the house and said to him, "What are the words of foolishness outside?" Because she said this, the boy said to her, "When I was a baby, I became a boy, every time I play, you always sat to me "what do you do outside?" Because he said this to her, she said, "Your foolishness cuts my heart and causes chaos." This goes around like a circle. (Simplified) interlinear: Ad savto líle emno. Ne jepxe ehal bo nexen leso nefe. D N V N 3 V V pp 3pl-p N 4 Nefe etde. Ne jepxe ehal nefe bo nexen leso nefe dade 4 V 3 V V 4 pp 3pl-p N 4 c nefe akwe ehad wa ne gaixe et nefe, "Kor ete ax ixodex 4 V dem c 3 V d* 4 ? V D N fuwijan níbe ad nara?". Dade ehad ne gaixe, ad emno N pp D N c dem 3 V D N et ne gaixe, "Bra la gaeta txetxe, la ijíya emno, hron brayín d* 3 V adv 1 V N 1 V N adj N la etda, do ixero et la, "Kor akwo do níbe ad nara?" 1 V 2 V d* 1 ? V 2 pp D N Dade ehad nefe gaixe, ne gaixe, "Don fuwija ujofe c dem 4 V 3 V 2p N V lan kea wa jepxe moraxna." Ehad olere kwanaf haver. 1p N c V N dem V adv N Key: N noun V verb D definite article pp preposition adj adjective adv adverb 1 1st person pronoun 1p 1st person possessive 2 2nd person pronoun 2p 2nd person possessive 3 3rd person pronoun 3pl-p 3rd person plural possessive 4 "4th person", obviative (referring to a second party) c conjunction dem demonstrative d* "to", indirect object marker Grammar notes: Word order is SVO, but not strictly so. There is no indefinite article. The basic, infinitive form of a verb ends in -al Present tense is conjugated for person: 1st=-a, 2nd=-o, 3rd=-e Past tense is the conjugated the same as present with the prefix ga- added. Habitual action is shown by adding -er- between the stem and the person ending. e.g., akwo ("you do")=> akwero ("you always do") Possession (genitive) is shown on nouns and pronouns with the suffix -n for words ending in vowels, -en for consonant final words. Plurals are formed with the suffix -x (vowel final), or -ex (consonant final) Glossary: savto -- woman emno -- boy between the ages of 4-11 leso -- house, dwelling ixod -- word fuwija -- foolishness, silliness nara -- sky txetxe -- pre-walking baby brayín -- instance, event, time (as in "six times") kea -- heart, soul, spirit moraxna -- chaos, misfortune, disorder haver -- circle lílal -- to take care of jepxal -- to cause, to compel someone to an action ehal -- to come etdal -- to play akwal -- to do etal -- to be ixal -- to say ijíyal -- to become ujofal -- to cut olal -- to go ad, ax -- the (definite article) bo -- in dade -- because ehad -- this wa -- and níbe -- under bra-- when hron -- each kwanaf -- like, as (referring to the manner in which an action is executed) --- Shreyas


Bryan Maloney <bjm10@...>