Re: Participles in Natlangs and in Conlangs
|Date:||Wednesday, June 21, 2006, 23:38|
---In firstname.lastname@example.org, Roger Mills <rfmilly@...> wrote:
>Kash is poor in participles. The base form of verbs can be used
>indemi sisa (mother-my love) my beloved mother
>andusok teca (result desire) a/the desired result/outcome
>(for negative un-, prefix tra-)
>But no present or future forms; you have to use finite forms:
>anala re (i)nawus/(i)lali (children REL (they)swim/sing) 'the
>Gerunds: very formal -(a)le: nawusale/lalile anali 'the childrens'
>or a nominalization+ni (if it exists)-- andali/ni
>anala, or most common/colloquial, base+ni: lali/ni anala.
>Gerund+DO is another matter:
>sosir atotiÃ±i, me yarumbarak
>'hearing his report made me angry' =
>anju masorir atotiÃ±i, maÃ§umarak
>"when I heard his report I got angry'.
>"I have a report to write (=that must be written)"
>yale atotin re macayi (ma-w)uris
>(there-is report REL I-must (I-)write)
>"Morituri te salutamus"
>mila re poro-poro mihorem, te vele supaka
>(we REL going-to/redup. we-die, you-DAT. give obeisance)
Thanks, Roger. These are helpful (and good, too!)
>Probably Charlie will post some complex examples of this sort of
>thing in his 1200 sentence project..........
Charlie? I thought it was Gary Shannon'? ("fiziwig"?)
>There are, however, potential (able to) forms with
>prefix po- (related to pole 'be able');
>generally po+intrans.verb = 'able to...',
>po+trans.vb. = 'able to be ...ed'
>(actually that's pretty English-y, come to think of it ;-( ),
>and some forms have specific or idiosyncratic meanings:
>poharan 'able to walk' refers only to young children,
>as - usually_ does
>poÃ§indi 'able to speak'.
>But poharan with a location means
>"able to be walked (to), within walking distance",
>and an adult might exclaim
>trapoÃ§indi mam "I was speechless!'
>But trapoharan/trapoÃ§indi _could_ refer to an adult who has never
>been able to walk/speak due to congenital problems; otherwise, one
>would have to use the aux. verb--
>ta yapole (ya)haran/Ã§indi 'he can't walk/speak'
>(due to some temporary problem/injury).
>And (tra)ponolit of humans means '(il)literate, (un)able to read',
>of written work, '(il)legible'
Thanks for these too, Roger.
They look quite good;
and also look helpful.