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Re: Participles in Natlangs and in Conlangs

From:eldin_raigmore <eldin_raigmore@...>
Date:Wednesday, June 21, 2006, 23:38
---In, Roger Mills <rfmilly@...> wrote:
>Kash is poor in participles. The base form of verbs can be used >attributively-- > >(past/perfect "participle") >indemi sisa (mother-my love) my beloved mother >andusok teca (result desire) a/the desired result/outcome >(for negative un-, prefix tra-) > >But no present or future forms; you have to use finite forms: >anala re (i)nawus/(i)lali (children REL (they)swim/sing) 'the >swimming/singing children' > >Gerunds: very formal -(a)le: nawusale/lalile anali 'the childrens' >swimming/singing...'; >or a nominalization+ni (if it exists)-- andali/ni >anala, or most common/colloquial, base+ni: lali/ni anala. > >Gerund+DO is another matter: >sosir atotiñi, me yarumbarak >'hearing his report made me angry' = >anju masorir atotiñi, maçumarak >"when I heard his report I got angry'. > >Futures: >"I have a report to write (=that must be written)" >yale atotin re macayi (ma-w)uris >(there-is report REL I-must (I-)write) > >"Morituri te salutamus" >mila re poro-poro mihorem, te vele supaka >(we REL going-to/redup. we-die, you-DAT. give obeisance)
Thanks, Roger. These are helpful (and good, too!)
>Probably Charlie will post some complex examples of this sort of >thing in his 1200 sentence project..........
Charlie? I thought it was Gary Shannon'? ("fiziwig"?)
>There are, however, potential (able to) forms with >prefix po- (related to pole 'be able'); >generally po+intrans.verb = 'able to...', >po+trans.vb. = 'able to be ...ed' >(actually that's pretty English-y, come to think of it ;-( ), >and some forms have specific or idiosyncratic meanings: > >poharan 'able to walk' refers only to young children, >as - usually_ does >poçindi 'able to speak'. > >But poharan with a location means >"able to be walked (to), within walking distance", >and an adult might exclaim >trapoçindi mam "I was speechless!' > >But trapoharan/trapoçindi _could_ refer to an adult who has never >been able to walk/speak due to congenital problems; otherwise, one >would have to use the aux. verb-- >ta yapole (ya)haran/çindi 'he can't walk/speak' >(due to some temporary problem/injury). > >And (tra)ponolit of humans means '(il)literate, (un)able to read', >of written work, '(il)legible'
Thanks for these too, Roger. They look quite good; and also look helpful. ----- eldin