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From:Costentin Cornomorus <elemtilas@...>
Date:Monday, August 4, 2003, 22:17
--- John Leland <leland@...>

In Talarian.

> 1. Three birds are flying.
Meryyahatar ihohoc hawican-ca-he. fly-3s-DUR-MID those.three bird-PL-the-and meryyaham, "fly" is generally a middle voice action (a bird flies itself); inanimate plurals are treated as collective singular subjects, so -atar in stead of -âmtar. Ihohoc is a numeric pronoun, favoured over simple numbers in uses like this. -ca- (and -ta- and -ha- and -sa-) is a topic marker which changes when the interlocutors switch to some new focus of conversation. -he is a generaic discourse marker and technically means "and".
> 2. Goquim is a simple language.
Çerewamemonayatar Tenxwwar Haryuça-he swift.teach-3s-PUNC-MID tongue noble-and As above, monayam, "teach, learn", is middle voiced. One doesn't learn something - something teaches itself to one. Reduplication indicates the aorist form of the punctual conjugation. Tenxwwar Haryuça is, naturally, Talarian, the noble tongue of the Aryans.
> Goquim quickly learned-is-can language.
Were Goquim a language of the World, it would be Tenxwwar Qocumuça.
> 3. *Ligana-me fugefe fugeli tiga-fe. > Garden (prettyplantland)-in many verypretty > trees.
Calama canapatalani alomasanahapsar-he. Sleep-STAT grass-place-LOC many-pretty-tree-and Calamam, "sleep" is a stative verb (the active conjugation forms mean "fall asleep"), hence the 3s -a. Talarian really seems to resist plural inanimate nouns, hence the singular "many-tree". The Telerani don't have gardens as such, but a canapatalar, "grass place" might be marked off for household recreation and to plant harbs. It is locative, since the trees sleep _in_ the garden.
> 4. I am learning Goquim.
Monayatar Tenxwwar Haryuça makam-hal. Monayatar, et r. as above. Makam is the 1s dat pronoun, "to me"; -hal is a redundant postposition meaning "to, towards" and simply reinforces the direction of the teaching. Literally: Talarian teaches itself to me.
> 5. My name is Nikil Sinha.
Hassâ Hanicolar Çnahâttar xonomani. Am-STAT N. S. name-INSTR Be is the stative verb par excellence, hence 1s -â. As has been said before, Talarian is not especially friendly to foreign words. -attar is the foreign name suffix; xonomani = "by name".
> 6. Where is the book?
Stana-hami pucar-mat. stand-3s-STAT-where book-? It is unusual to tack postpositions on verbs, but -hami is both a postposition proper and an adverb, so can be attached to the verb as well. -mat is the interrogative postposition. Inflexionally, the voice should rise on "", which reinforces the interrogative nature of the sentence.
> 7. You are coming with me.
Xamyasi anat maka-com-he. come-2s-DUR thou me-with-and Tû is 2s personal pronoun.
> 8. Are you coming with me?
Xamyasi tû maka-com-mat. Note anat v. tû. Anat is the cataphoric 2s personal pronoun: it is used when introducing a previously unknown entity without using the associated noun. Had this been a noun phrase, I would have used the topic particle -ta- (in stead of -ca-), to alert my interlocuter of the change in focus. In direct speech, "thou" can't be introduced anew, because we're already talking - both "I" and "thou" are already known entities to the discussion, in other words.
> 9. What is the name of that city?
Cramiyyar-cat, xonomar-his-mat. City-that name-what-? Here we see -cat, which is a fully declined demonstrative pronoun, related to the topic particle -ca- we saw before. -his- is the interrogative pronoun root. Teleran has two cities of note, so we could say: Cramiyyar-cat, his irilô-mat. I.e., That city, which of the two is it? Padraic. ===== Asey so enki to arunne; morahay so yomaji to allane. Man hunts, Woman cooks. [Gurranian saying] .