Re: Vocab 2.3 and 2.4
|From:||Roger Mills <romilly@...>|
|Date:||Saturday, November 9, 2002, 21:26|
Aidan Grey wrote:
> Okay, all you ravenous beasts, here is the promised double batch.
>topic: genitive relatives (or whatever the "whose..." clauses are called)As a general rule, "the X whose Y..." becomes (in literal translationese)
REL his Y..." in Kash, e.g. "the man whose car broke down" > "the man
who/which his car broke down". Ditto for "with" clauses: "the man with the
broken arm" > "the man who/which his arm is broken". Resumptive pronoun, I
believe it's called.
>1. president...kanguka 'chairman, presiding person' < kuka 'sit', lit."sitter"
> The president whose office is oval has moved to the country.
a. Topic/Comment: kanguka ya re conekni yale akañi citruvek, mende yacumat
kañ-kuka ya re conek-ni ya-ale akan-ni citruvek, mende ya-cumat
AGT-sit DEM-M REL office-his 3-be shape-its ellipse, PERF 3-move(residence)
This sentence could also start with the mende clause, kanguka etc. following
hucomba-- the point being that the kanguka clause is too "heavy" to be
subject-first (intonation differs if T/C vs. SVO)
(citruvek-- an irreg. compd. of ciyur 'circle' and livek 'long'; hucomba-- a
compd. of hutuñ 'area' and çomba 'land (physical)'.
Idiom not applicable here: enje t(a)renje 'town and country' lit. town
>3. trap...andipat 'thing that captures', noml. añ-lipat
> The hunter whose trap was empty is angry.yamarak kacohi ya re andipatni yumbu (an instance of VS due to heavy NP)
3-marak kañ-çohi ya re añ-lipat-ni yumbu
3-angry AGT-hunt DEM-M REL trap-his empty
>4. operate...(surgical) lica-tumbra lit. cut-treat, generally viewd as anoun; rungoram 'manage, run/drive, operate' caus. of koram 'move'
> He operated on her.ne yamepu lica-tumbra
3-DAT 3-do operate/operation 'he did an operation on/to her'-- preferred
over colloq.: yan yalica-tumbra, her(acc) he cut-treat (acc. here because
the action directly affects her)
(lica-tumbra was the first thing that came to mind, I suppose the medical
profession has a more euphemistic tech. term. Presumably a "surgeon" could
be a kandica-tumbra or just kandica 'cutter', but again, there's probably a
nicer way to say it.)
> He knows how to operate (a well/pump) that machineyakaya (ya)rungoram apral yu
3-know (3)caus-move machine DEM-N
> Whose idea was that?kariyi pilani yu lit. 'of whom thought-its/the that-N'--idiomatic use of
> The girl whose dress is torn blames you.te yayitindor luminji ye re paloni yatret
te ya-itindor luminji ye re palo-ni ya-tret
2-DAT 3-blame yg.woman DEM-F REL sarong-her 3-torn
>7. descriptive...lepe-lepes, lelepes < lepes 'to call/name X Y'
> The guy whose writing is very descriptive will probably win awards.kunak yawupando engaremeç kañuri ya re añahañi sambat lepe-lepes
kunak ya-upan-to engarem-ç kañ-uri ya re añ-ahan-ni sambat lepes-redup.
maybe 3-receive prize-PL AGT-write DEM-M REL NOML-create-his so-much
descriptive (Another VOS due to heavy subject NP)
lit. "maybe will receive prizes that writer whose creation/work (is) so
>8. upright...ningar 'to stand upright, erect'
> It stood upright against the wall.yaninga-ningar ri vorayeni nera
3-ninga(redupl) LOC side-DAT-its wall
"It stood upright onto-the-side-of the wall"
Aha, a problem just solved-- ri vorani X (vora=ACC) beside X (location) vs.
ri vorayeni X (vora-e=DAT) against X (contact with, implied motion)..Hmm,
>9. everything...yuno 'all', pl. yunoç is OK too
> Everything is as messed up! (don't you mean "_all_ messed up"?)cakañeva yuno! (heavy stress on yu-)
"Everything is overcome-by-wrongness"
>10. own...1. apeña 'own, possess' takes DO in genitive; 2. (one's) own usesreflexive/emphatic suffix -tu
> The old woman who owns that (cat) house is really mean.kukundri hañumbara, kaçuma ye marok re yapeña punayi yu
true-redup. hañu-mbara kaçuma DEM-F old REL ya-apeña puna-GEN DEM-N
really "black-souled", that old woman who owns that house.
(Kash don't have or own household pets)
Note: _apeña_ with an inanim. subject means 'belong to', the object/owner is
still in the genitive:
çenji yapeña punayi yu 'Shenji owns/is owner of/ that house'
puna yu yapeña çenjiyi 'that house belong to/is property of/ Shenji'
> I can barely see my own hand in front of my face.mapolepi (ma)tikas nilusmitu ri kandimi (~ri kandi katimi)
1s-pole-pi (1s)tikas nilus-my-REFL LOC front-my (~LOC front face-my)
I-able-barely (I)see hand-my-own in front-of-me (~in front [of] my face)
(Actually -tu is unnecessary here; there can only be one 1st person after
all. Only if the subject were 3d pers would -tu be necessary to
I'll do #2.4 in another lengthy post.........