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Vaiysi grammar revised: pronouns and prepositions

From:Mangiat <mangiat@...>
Date:Wednesday, January 31, 2001, 14:05

This time pronouns and prepositions:

The Pronoun
Vaiysi pronouns are fairly regular inflected, as nouns or adjectives, but
they don't have locative and allative, cases which are expressed with the
absolutive followed by the postpositions ou (locative) and id (allative).
Personal absolutive pronouns are used only for emphasis, the verb indicating
the subject; ergative pronouns are always expressed. As for nouns and
adjectives, there is no gender distinction.

Personal pronouns
      1s             2s         3s         1p             2p            3p
abs vyea (-o) et           ho         mye         sye             seiy
erg vel           tel          houl       mil            sil
dat vem         em         hum        meivis      seivis         hoivis
gen iyva (-o) ta (-o)     hua (-o) iyma (-o) iysa (-o)    seiyni (-o)

Relative pronouns
abs kyeu
erg kul
dat kum
gen keva (-o)

Table of correlatives
                 query     this     that         no         some
adj./thing     keu     man     san         iyske     tore             elie
person         keu     man     san         iysku     toru             eliu
place         keuryeu yemo yeso         iyseryeu torryeu     eleryeu
time             kesti     oile     erte         ounie      ---
way         ouvesi       ---     ---        izouve    torouve       elouve
reason       ouve
quantity     uvyau

The following chart gives the commonest prepositions, with their base
meanings. Remember that all the prepositions govern the genitive case, which
is, thus, a prepositional case.

a in, between, during
chyem up to, until
e as
el apart, without
fin before
ga(d) from, out of
gadeu out of
hi with
horie between
iyo behind, after
niyn instead of
os under, by
oulis near to; than
riyd about
toullie without
un, uno on, over
voreu next to

Prepositions are phonologically proclitics. This means they never bear

Coordinating conjunctions
are or
i, iy and
gamman thus
keyeo that is
revye but
seiy but
taime also

Subordinating conjunctions
eimo when
ne if