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conlang survey

From:Roger Mills <romilly@...>
Date:Saturday, October 26, 2002, 4:27
>Language name, creator's name, realative date of >creation (just any old number will do), country and >first language of creator, purpose of conlang >(auxlang, conlang, loglang, . . . ). >
Kash. Roger Mills. Begun 1976, developed 99-present. US/English. Conlang-- a priori, but strongly inspired by various Indonesian languages.
>Phonetics: number of consonants, number of vowels, >presence of nasalization, tone and how many, where the >accent generally falls. >
20 C, 5 V; penult accent (some exceptions). The native order: x k Ng, S tS ndZ ñ y, s t nd n r l, f p mb m v; a i e u o. No contrastive nasalization or tones.
>Morphemes: presence of allomorphs, mutation, >assimilation,
allomorphs arise due to assimilatory rules. prefixes, suffixes, mostly prefixes, a few suffixes infixes,
>suprafixation, dicontinuation, exclusion, total >fusion, subtraction,
No....... reduplication. Lots-- full, partial, some rare final-syl. redup. Is the conlang
>agglutinating, isolating or fusional?
Agglutinating with isolating tendencies, or vice versa
> >Nouns and such: subclasses of nouns (common/proper, >abstract, things that may not be expressed explicitly >in affixes),
Not marked per se. Some forms are visibly nouns by virtue of nominalizing affixes. presence of cases and how many and what
Yes, 4--Nom, Gen. Dat. Acc. kind of possession (alienable, inalienable, no
>distinction, etc.)
Perhaps heading towads an alien/inalien. system-- at present, possession by animates is marked differently than possession by inanimates. presence of gender, number,
>articles, demostratives, adjectives, quantatives.
Natural division, animate/inanimate-- though some natural phenomena are classed as animate. Singular and plural numbers. Gender distinction only in the 3d pers. sing. pronoun. No articles per se; demonstratives fill in. Demonstratives: this, that. Numerals and quantifiers (?) function similarly. Predicative adjectives are verbal. Are
>comparatives expressed by affix, word order or both?
With words for more/most, less/least. A few common adjs. have prefixed comp./super. markers.
>Do pronouns express gender, number, declension?
1st and 2nd, sing. and plur., no gender. 3rd sing: M/F/Inanim, 3pl. Anim/Inanim. Pronouns decline like nouns, with some irregularities. Are
>there indefinite pronouns, possessed pronouns?
Indef. pronouns, yes a few; possessive (?) pronouns, no
>Others? Are prepositions bound, unbound? How many >prepositons (approximate).
Not all that many preps. Most are combinations of the locative marker plus location noun, plus object. Presence of clitics. There are proclitics of the pronouns, for IO and DO Is
>derivational morphology mostly by compounding words or >by affix or both?
> >Verbs and such: >Are person, number, object expressed with the verb?
Person/number (subject) yes; object no.
>Are there static verbs (to be)?
Yes but little used; mainly to express "to have" (plus dative) Is the object
>incorporated into the person marker (making a >phonetically different affix like in the Native >American languages)? Is transitivity marked for >transitive, intransitive, bitransitive or other?
No to all. But some verbs are intrinsically intrans. or trans. by virtue of derivational prefixes. Is
>the person inclusive, exclusive, no distiction? Kind >of gender.
No distinction. There is an exclusive (actually dual) 1st pl. pronoun, now used only in poetry and formulaic expressions. Are past, present, future expressed? Yes
>Recent, remote?
No Is mode express, what kind? Is voice
>expressed? What kind?
Mode- by modal verbs. Imperative- by suffix. Voice, active only. Changes in word order would indicate a passive translation. Manner? Aspect? Please list
>what kinds of manner and aspect the conlang expresses >in its verbs.
Perfect, optatitive (sort of)-- with particles Presence of adverbs, pro-drop. Adverbs are not specifically marked. No pro-drop. Can
>nouns, adjectives, adverbs be changed to verbs and >vice versa?
Noun>verb, with difficulty. Adjs. are verbs, and can undergo all verbal derivations. Adverbs no.
> >Presence of adjective, adverbial clauses and relative >pronouns.
> >Sentences: >Does the conlang have an ergative or accusative >system?
Accusative. Word order and is it free or strict? Generally SVO, but there is considerable freedom. Are
>adjectives, adverbs and prepositions before or after >the modified word?
Adj. follow nouns (as do genitives); advs. precede verbs usually. Prep. precede. Is the word order changed in a
No. How many (approximately) conjugations are
Just one.
> >Other: >What is the number base for the numeral system (10? >12?)?
10 Presence of idioms, irregular forms of nouns
>and verbs.
Yes to all; but very few irreg. forms. Is the language syntax very predictable,
>or are there many exceptions?
Predictable. How much literature has
>been produced and what kind (I'm not talking about >translations, but stuff you wrote yourself).
Alas, translations only...... Is there
>a history and dictionary of the conlang? Script >invented?
History, yes but subject to change. Dictionary yes. Script yes. Other conlangs produced by the creator of
>this one.
Gwr. Prevli-- both rudimentary at present.
> >If you could summarize your conlang in a sentence, >what would you write?
In the set of all conlangs, Kash is probably one of the less arcane........