Laranao modals, aspects, etc.
|From:||Daniel Andreasson <daniel.andreasson@...>|
|Date:||Monday, December 20, 1999, 22:55|
I've been working a little on the grammar of Laranao,
the language I'm creating for a friend of mine. (She'll
be playing an elf in a live RPG and wants an own
lang. I think I told you that IIRC).
Anyway. The grammar is very simple, so she will have
a chance of learning it quickly (she's no linguaholic
like the rest of us, though wanting to have a lang of
her own is promising... :)
It seems that Laranao has a whole bunch of particles
and I'd like some comments on them if you have any.
The Laranao quantifiers:
onga * all, collective ('all')
ongai * all, distributive ('every,each')
ele * any / hypothetical sg. ('any one',
'he who...' 'any one who...')
elao * any / hypothetical pl. ('any',
eto * some sg. ('someone,something')
etao * some pl.
ero * many
Did I miss any important quantifiers? Does this
look like a reasonable system?
The Laranao modals:
oma * propositional should
ece * permissive may,let,can
'You *may* use my car.'
anoa * ability can,be able to
lua * possibility/uncertainty may
'You *may* feel a bit sick when we take off.'
axa * obligation must, have to, need to
'You *must* eat your vegetables.'
as@ * conclusive must
'You've travelled all day. You *must* be tired.'
pa * imperative
gi * hypothetical
ira * subjunctive/conditional/desire may,wish,will,want,desire
'*May* you have a good life!'
'I *want* to go by car!'
Is it 'natural' to have all these modals? At least
in English many of them go together (e.g. 'can' which
is both 'permissive' and 'ability'). Is it too logical?
I mean, you can't tell jokes based on the ambiguity
of such words. :)
And can I include 'imperative' and 'subjunctive' in
The Laranao aspects:
io * negative 'not'
toa * inceptive 'begin'
he@ * cessative 'stop'
area * ?name 'to be able to make in time'
if@ * habitual 'use to' 'to do regularly'
0 * perfective 'complete action'
mi * imperfective 'incomplete action'
Is there a name for the 'make in time' aspect?
It's used like: 'Will you be able to bake all
those cookies in time for christmas?' =
'Will you _area_ bake all those cookies before christmas?'
Can I have 'negative' as an aspect?
The Laranao evidentials:
ate * perceptive/direct experience 'experienced with own
lu@ * quotative/hearsay
I think these two evidentials will be very optional
and not used very often, only when you really want to make
clear how you got the info in a subtle way.
So what do you think about all these particles? Myself,
I have a feeling that the borders between the modals,
aspects and evidentials are a bit blurred here and there,
but are there any real problems? Comments are as usual much
Daniel Andreasson | http://make.a.conlang.nu
firstname.lastname@example.org | http://rinya.conlang.org
"Words don't correspond to things,
they correspond to thoughts."
- Samuel Taylor Coleridge, 1827