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Vocab exercise - PLZ CRITIQUE!!

From:Aidan Grey <grey@...>
Date:Saturday, October 19, 2002, 8:41
Please check over this for me, guys. This is my first translation in
Taalen, and my verb system (and topicalization) is weird enough I may have
made goofs.

NB: sa, si, wa, wi are noun classes: strong animate or inanimate, and weak
animate or inanimate, respectively. S or W indicate strong or weak
conjugations in reference to verbs. Stative denominal verbs are always
weak, and are not marked.

On verbs: C = conjunct, A = absolute. a = 3sg animate, i = 3sg inanimate
On nouns: O = oblique, G = genitive, NP = nom. pl., INF =
infixed/objective, and sometimes POSS too!

Topicalization: the topic is moved to the front of the sentence, followed
by the particle |a| and then a conjunct verb. Normal order is VSO.

>1. crowd
SA. lhau, SA. hang (used of violent or militaristic groups)
>There was a huge crowd in front of the building.
There was a huge crowd in front of the building. |Lhau mo a ven mei 'n amahta.| crowd big:PresC:a TOP be:PretC:a in_front ART building:GS /'Law 'mo @ 'ven mejn @.'max.t@/ Note: the SV _mo_ is in the present tense because the crowd was big at the time in reference: it was relatively present. If it had been in the preterite tense, it would mean that a small crowd, which had been large in the past, was in front of the building.
>2. lead
cod'h: S. to lead, guide codhyl: WI. leash, lead (obl. stem coil-, < cod'h + inst. suff. yl) mul: WI. lead
>She led her dog into the field.
|Codas a vena e chon me 'n ghortha.| lead:VN TOP be:PretC:i 3sa:POSS dog in ART field:OS /'ko.d@s @ 've.n@ e 'xon men 'Gor.T@/
>Her dog was on a lead.
|Me 'n chodhyl a vena e chon.| in ART leash TOP be:PretC:i 3sa:POSS dog /men 'xo.DIl @ ' e 'xon/
>The pipes are made of lead.
|Mula a harath na feida.| lead:SV:VN TOP be:PresC:3p ART:pl pipe:NP /'mu.l@ 'har.aT n@ 'fej.d@/ Note: just for interest, a non-topicalized version: |Mulath na feida.| lead:SV:PresA:3p ART:pl pipe:NP /'mul.aT n@ 'fej.d@/
>3. ready
W. valme
>He's ready to go now.
|Valme thuilara a hara leu.| ready:VN go:VN:SV:PresC:i TOP be:PresC:3si now /' TwI.'la.r@ 'ha.r@ lew/ Note the denominal stative verb _thuilara_. First, the VN of tul is the irreg. tuilas, which is made into a denominal SV with a, causing rhotacism of the s. The breathed mutation is due to the inanimate noun (valme) preceding it.
>4. slow
W. mall
>Snails are slow.
|Mallu a har shaeled'h.| slow:VN TOP be:PresC:a snail /' @ 'har 'Saj.leD/
>He runs slowly, and I bet he won't win the race.
|Ho vall a nor, as mechoerin yan eveanor i reth.| Adv slow TOP run:PresC:3sa & bet:PresA:1s SUB:neg win:FUT:3sa ART race /h@ 'val @ 'nor @s me.'xOr.In y@n e.'v&n.or @ 'reT/ yan marks a negative subordinate clause. /O/ = the barred o of Icelandic
>5. rent
SI. cis
>I have to pay rent on the 5th of every month.
|Cis a har cae 'n y 'a rent:NS REL be:PresC:a obligation_on 1s:INF RE TOP /'kis @ 'har 'kajn y@ ichan viru reane chaa.| buy:PresA:1s five:ORD month:GS each:PresA:a 'i.x@n ' 'r&.ne 'xA/ RE = relative clause ender cis: S. to rent, lease I rent a small room. |Ciras o 'n a har huone phina.| rent:VN from 1s:INF TOP be:PresC:a room:NS small:PresC:i /'kir.@s on @ 'har ' 'fi.n@/
>6. popularity
WA. gadhanas (<gadhan: W. be popular, lit. ga 'with' + adan 'people')
>This was just a popularity contest.
|Gadhanas ve gaumyl a adhir vena ta.| popularity type_of contest TOP just be:PretC:i this:NS /'ga.D@n.@s ve 'gaw.mIl @.'Dir 've.n@ 'ta/ ve: Conj. as; WI. type (of); particle often used to reverse the position of head and modifying verb, which then appears as a VN in the nominative.
>7. -ion >two parts here: first, how are verbal nouns formed?
-as is the most common (verbal) nominalizer. Others include: -a, -e, -en, -u.
> act > action, move > motion, see > vision.
dean > deanu, corra > corra, eitha > eithas
>second, the sentence: > His action was hasty.
|Deanu o 'r a vrissia.| act:VN from 3sa:INF TOP hasty:PretC:i /'d&.nu or @ '
>8. addition
WA. lascu
>Even the addition of an extra student increased class sizes beyond >tolerable limits.
|Lascu hen lenyone avresh a mothane meidha rangath addition:NS even student:GS extra:P:a TOP increase:PretC:a size:NP class:SV:Pres:3p /'las.ku hen len.' @.'vreS @ mo.' 'mej.D@ 'raN.aT hal tyorana loethima.| beyond limit:OS tolerable:Pres:i hal tSo.'ra.n@ 'lO.TI.m@/
>9. hat
WI. lac'h
>Today is a say-something hat day!
|Lach ve laa a sev odra y 'a hara innos.| hat type_of day REL say:Pres:a something RE TOP be:Pres:i today /'lax ve 'lA 'sev 'o.dra y@ 'ha.r@ In.nos/
>10. pack
S. bul
>I need to pack for my trip.
|Bullu a shedin re 'n dhonas.| pack:VN TOP need:Pres:1s for 1s:INF fare:VN /' @ 'Se.dIn ren 'Do.nas/
>The pack she wore on the trip was way too heavy.
spin: WI. backpack; bundle |Spin a oveirsi me 'n dhonas a rothroemsia.| pack 3si:INF wear:PretC:a in ART fare:VN TOP INT:heavy:PretC:i /'spIn o.' men 'Do.nas @ r@.' That's it. Aidan