Re: More on Lyanjen verbs
|From:||Jörg Rhiemeier <joerg.rhiemeier@...>|
|Date:||Thursday, September 28, 2000, 23:19|
Matt McLauchlin wrote:
> OK then, German. (The rationale could be this very problem! I.e. omitting
> the subject turns it into a passivesque construction. Ger skic clairan = She
> breaks the window. Skic clairan = The window gets broken.
Up to here, the matter closely parallels the ways of Nur-ellen (my
The examples translate to
He rist i hent.
She break the window
"She breaks the window."
Rist i hent.
break the window
"The window gets broken." Literally, "[Someone] breaks the window."
The forms are the same, only the subject is missing.
> (Clairan skic =
> The window breaks.)
Is there any change of meaning resulting from the reversion of word
Just another way to say the same thing. Nur-ellen has free word order,
such that this could be translated as _I hent rist_, with the same
meaning as _Rist i hent_. Note that _hent_ is still in the objective
case - it cannot do otherwise because it is inanimate. A window cannot
break out of itself, it requires an external impulse to break.
The transitive verb "to break" and the intransitive verb
"to break" = "to get broken" are the same lexeme in Nur-ellen:
the transitive verb _rist_. As with any transitive verb, the agent
(subject) can be omitted in the sentence. Such zero-agent sentences
are what in Nur-ellen is used instead of the non-existing passive.
> Too, how about a
> >complete paradigm of a verb in the present tense, so we can see what it
> >looks like?
> Present simple/progressive.
> First conjugation (verbs ending in an unstressed monophthongal vowel):
> ebnu (to come) (pronouns are in nominative)
> ia ebnu iaja ebnusa
> na ebnub bua ebnuja
> ga ebn gaja ebnuga
> Participle: ebnand
> Second conjugation (all other verbs)
> teuc (to love) (pronouns are in ergative)
> iar teuca iaja teucas
> nar teucab bua teucaj
> ga teuc gaja teucag
So if I understand correctly, with some verbs nom/acc marking is used
with other erg/abs marking? Does each noun and pronoun have four
core cases, namely nominative, accusative, ergative and absolutive,
or am I completely off the track here? Please enlighten me.
Share and enjoy,