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Re: YAEPT:Re: Schwa and [V]: Learning the IPA

From:daniel prohaska <danielprohaska@...>
Date:Wednesday, June 14, 2006, 15:02
-----Original Message-----

Mark J. Reed wrote:
> On 6/14/06, R A Brown <ray@...> wrote: > >> Yep - [U] or [V] is quite distinct from [@] for most of us Brits. > > > You keep mentioning [U] and [V] together - are they merged for you? I > know they are for some, but I thought it was a Scots thing.
From: Joe "Scotland, and half of England has [U] or [u] in place of [V]." Joe, Mark, The northern half of England - yes - most definitely, though it's not a merger - the phoneme /U/ never split. The southern dialects (which were subsequently carried across the Atlantic to form one of the phonological bases for American English) split ME /U/ to /U/ and /V/. As with many such splits /V/ must have started off as an allophonic variant. I also believe that phonetic [V] in RP is secondary and that the original allophonic complementary variants were [U] ~ [@] (and that American English is phonetically conservative in this respect). ME /U/ became [@] in Southern England except in the environment of preceding labials or following [l] or [S], later loan words and reading pronunciation of "book words" aloud for [@] in theses environments also. The establishment of these loans and learned terms allowed for the formally allophonic split to become phonemic. In southern England new stressed /@/ became [V] in ca. 18th c. As far as I know Scots and Scottish English both distinguish /V/ and /U/. Like US English, Scottish English does not have phonemic vowel quantity (examples from Hughes/Trudgill, "English Accents and Dialects", Newcastle 1992): /i/ bee, beer, seedy, meet, meat /I/ pit, bird, fir, city /e/ bay, plate, weight, their, mate /E/ pet, fern, there /a/ bard, hat, dance, daft, half, father, farther /O/ cot, caught, paws, pause, paw, pot, Paul, doll /o/ pole, boat, board, nose, knows /V/ putt, fur /u/ pull, put, boot, poor /ai/ buy /au/ bout /oi/ boy Dan