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Re: Zera: Proto-Andinean, first part

From:Carlos Thompson <carlos_thompson@...>
Date:Saturday, September 23, 2000, 13:31
Nik Taylor wrote:

> Carlos Thompson wrote: > > i y } u > > e 2 U o > > E 9 @ V O > > { a A > > Wow! Lot's of vowels there!
I wanted to experiment how many vowels could evolve. Hangkerimce, with only 4 phonemic vowels is desendant from all that big inventory...
> > Nouns would bellong to one of three genders: animate, count > > inanimate and mass. > > Cool gender system. > > > unmarked: used as absolute or nominative (subject for
> > object for inanimates). > > I'm not sure I understand what you mean. Do you mean that for
> this acts as a nominative case, while for inanimates it acts as an > absolutive case? So, if a sentence has an animate agent and an > inanimate patient, both would be in unmarked case? Interesting. > > > Four numbers: singular (unmarked), dual, plural and paucal.
> > nouns are all unmarked for number) > > Hey! Common Kassí had the same number system. :-) > > > Definite article aglutinates. > > Suffix or prefix?
Suffix. Usually nouns are composed: root-number-case-definitiveness
> > Four (marked) tenses: present, future, recent past and remote
> > What's the distinction between recent and remote past? Or is it not > known?
Unknown, but reconstructors belive that it was variable, according to context. Something like recent past is used when consequences of an action are percieved as present (I took caffe at breakfast this morning.)
> > Five aspects: normal (unmarked), perfect, potencial, progresive, > > repetitive. > > What do these aspects represent? Like, does "normal" indicate a > punctual activity? If so, can it be combined with present tense?
> potential used for a "going to" type aspect?
Unmarked (normal) would be used for both punctual and habitual situations. Potencial is more like a "is about to" type aspect.
> > Four moods: indicative (unmarked), irrealis, imperative, > > interrogative. > > Interrogative is a special mood? Interesting!
Which can also be used in afirmative sentences. This is the normal way of making yes/no questions. wh-questions would use, probably indicative or irrealis.
> > Adverbs: Agree in case with adjective, or in tense with sentence. > > Awesomeness! > > > third person animate, third person inanimate > > Is third person inanimate used for both count and mass nouns? > > > four person animate, four person reflexive. > > No fourth person inanimate?
Yip. or reather, there is no distinction between third and four person for inanumates.