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Zera: Proto-Andinean, first part

From:Carlos Thompson <carlos_thompson@...>
Date:Thursday, September 21, 2000, 2:54
A recently published study has come to a reconstruction of
proto-Andinean, the ancestor of all Andinean languages.  Of course it
would be imposible to be sure that if you go back to Zera 7000 years
ago, you would be understood with this reconstruction, but factual
evidence on Andinean languages is consistent with this theory.

<!-- Next two paragraphs are conhistory -->
First, Proto-andinean, despite what its name would suggest, was not
original from the Andes but reather there is evidence it came for some
place between San Diego or Lemuraki (OTL Texas), and two Columbian
(North American) languages, former clasified as isolated, belong to
this family.  Proto-andineans would have been skilled sailors and wood
workers, seminomades, probably herders with small agriculture.  They
ould have moved south to America (South America) around 6500 BP,
mixing with local populations, developing five main families surviving
today: Rocky-Andinean (one surviving language), Apalachia-Andinean
(one surviving language), Carib-Andinean (several languages in
northern America), Central-Andinean (several languages along the
Andes) and Hermato-Andinean (several languages in the Hermato basin
(Amazonas basin), and the Andes).

The most spoken Andinean language today is Hangkerimce, from the
Hangkerimid family of the Carib-Andinean languages.  Hangkerimce is
spoken for near 72 million people, while all other andinean languages
count for 60 million people, 85% of them speaking one of four
Central-Andinean languages.

Proto-Andinean was, according to the article, a quite regular SOV,
split-ergative, aglutinative language.  Three genders, seven cases.
Prepositions, adjective following noun.  Verbs had four tenses, five
aspects and four moods.

Sounds (in SAMPA):
  p_h b m
  t_h d n r l (r is trilled)
  k_h g

   i y   }    u
    e 2     U o
     E 9 @  V O
      {  a  A

Accented vowels would have been long with a high or a low tone,
unstressed vowels a mid-tone and shorted than stressed.  Syllables
would have been all [C]V[N].  Most roots are CVCV (or VCV or CVV) with
either high or low tone on second syllable.  Several CVN, CVCVN and CV
roots.  Most aglutinative partilcles are CV or CVN.

Noun paradigm:
  Nouns would bellong to one of three genders: animate, count
inanimate and mass.  Case morphems and verb structure would agree with
  There was seven cases:
    unmarked: used as absolute or nominative (subject for animates,
object for inanimates).
    acusative: used as direct object for animates or as oblique
patient in anti-passive.
    ergative: used as subject of inanimates or as oblique agent in
    dative: used as indirect object.
  The other three cases would have special meanings according to the
preposition used.
  Four numbers: singular (unmarked), dual, plural and paucal.  (mass
nouns are all unmarked for number)
  Definite article aglutinates.  No indefinite article.

  Four (marked) tenses: present, future, recent past and remote past.
  Five aspects: normal (unmarked), perfect, potencial, progresive,
  Four moods: indicative (unmarked), irrealis, imperative,
  Verbs agree in number with subject.

Adjectives:  Agree in number and case with noun.
Adverbs: Agree in case with adjective, or in tense with sentence.

Pronouns: first person exclusive, first person inclusive, second
person familiar, second person polite, third person animate, third
person inanimate, third person reflexive, four person animate, four
person reflexive.

Word order was free with SOV as basic order.  Topic was usually

<< the following orthography will be used:
  b, d, g, m, n, r, l, i, a, o, u and y would represent their IPA
  p, t, k for respectively /p_h/, /t_h/ and /k_h/.
  é, è, e for respectively /e/, /E/, /@/
  ö, ø, ò for respectively /9/, /2/, /O/
  ü, ù, û for respectively /}/, /U/, /V/
  ä, â for respectively /{/, /A/
  Accented vowel would be marked with ' (high) or ` (low) tone.
A: animate noun; C: count inanimate noun; M: mass noun; V: verb; adj: adjective; adv: adverb; -c: case; -n: number; -ar: article; -t: tense; -as: aspect; -m: mood; pre: preposition; pro: pronoun. amö` V to have -ä -t present dûké` V to sail ekû` A man édi' V to hunt gâle`n adj red geré` adv maybe gö' pro four person reflexive irö' pro first person exclusive -in -n dual (for inanimate) kagö' C star kâba' A puma/couguar/mountain lion -ke -n dual (for animate) kuro' A human being lémen' A woman -lo -t future -mâ -c ergative (for mass inanimate) mâ' C stone mâ` A mother -me -n paucal mi' pro second person polite mitù' pro first person inclusive morè' V to eat mökò' pro third person animate -nâ -c dative (for inanimate and mass) nera` adj green ontü` A moon òn` adv not ølä` M metal øtü' pro second person familiar -pa -c dative (for animate) pala` M meat pèdä' adj one pigy' A child piran' M fire -po -c acusative (for all genders) pu` A sun -pü -n plural (for inanimate) rén' M people -rén -t remote past rèn' C hammer tagø` C tree tema' M earth -ti -n plural (for animate) tiken` M wood timä' pro third person reflexive to' adj big tòa' A crocodile/cayman/aligator -u -c ergative (for animate and count inanimate) u`le M flies ütâ` A coyote ================================================= Carlos Eugenio Thompson Pinzón Bogotá, Colombia ICQ: 19156333 URL: