Tunu verbal system LONG
|From:||Kala Tunu <kalatunu@...>|
|Date:||Sunday, February 10, 2002, 13:39|
Given the slight decrease of posts on the list i thought i may indulge in
describing the current state-of-the-art regarding Tunu verbal system which is
based on an endotropic/exotropic division of verbs. It's maybe not so great a
system, but i came to use it before i could actually understand what i was
doing. I had a hard time trying to analyse it and an i still can't describe it
so well. In case someone is kind and idle enough to read through it and tell me
how i could make the description easier to understand and what natlang verbal
system works the same way, may Tana pour a rain of fat meat juice stock on him.
Verbs are made from roots with Cai- prefixes tagging the exoactive, exopassive,
endoactive and endopassive verbal voices:
Exoactive verbs are all those whose main purpose is to affect an object: 'to
cut' taikeci, 'to give' taitula, 'to plant' taibuti, 'to build' taikemu, 'to
give birth' taikucu.
Endoactive verbs are all other active verbs: 'to be(come) blue' bainubi, 'to
take' bainuku, 'to eat' baitumu, 'to think' bainumi, 'to ask' baiseko.
Exopassive verbs are viewed as directed towards the passive subject: 'to be
beaten' naitake, 'to be fed' naimusa, 'to be given something' naitula.
Endopassive verbs are all other passive verbs: 'to be built' saikemu, 'to be
spoken' saicaka, 'to be opened' saiculo, 'to be seen'.
The endoactive bai- prefix is optional and usually omitted on the finitive verb:
'I eat' kami abaitumu > kami atumu--but it's kept on infinitive: 'I want to
eat': kami acebe baitumu. The exoactive definition "affecting" an object means
to create, maintain, modify or annihilate its nature (to correct), features (to
make blue), structure (to build/destroy), status (to name) or state (to raise).
Accordingly, verbs of procurement (to harvest, to eat), communication (to ask,
to address), intellectual and sensitive activities (to assess, to see) are
endoactive: 'He asks a question to you' Kama abaisekonye kamu. However,
communicating information is exoactive: 'He teaches you' Kama ataicekenye kamu.
The endoactive category of verbs thus includes verbs that could be considered in
English as active (bainuku 'to take'), mediopassive (baicobi 'to cook', baikemu
'to build'), reflexive (baibuti 'to plant oneself') and sometime even passive
(baikuca 'to be broken'). It also includes adjectives (bainubi 'to be
blue').There are specific pairs of tai-/bai- verbs where the bai- verb procures
something that the tai- verbs supplies: baikoco 'to buy' and taikoco 'to sell'.
There are also specific pairs of bai-/sai- verbs where the bai- verb feels what
the sai- verb prompts: baicile 'to feel interested', saicile 'to be of some
interest for'. There are also a factitive kai- prefix (to make someone/something
do/be), an equative lai- prefix (to be a/the) and an attributive mai- prefix (to
have), but they are standard.
Exotropic -nyV and endotropic -myV suffixes further show the direction or the
telicity of the verb. The -nyV suffix refers to the object of the verb while
the -myV suffix refers to the subject of the verb. Example:
-nye 'towards someone else': taitula-nye kama 'to give to him'
-mye 'towards oneself': naitula-mye lose 'to be given a present'
The vowels of the -nyV and -myV suffixes are:
-e = to, towards.
-u = in/at
-o = from, regarding
-a = into (transformation)
e-, u- and o- are truely prepositions: u-suba 'in the house', o-sala 'from the
sea', e-cela 'to the village'. a- is the finitive verbal prefix which once meant
"there is" (but now it's ai-). The -ny- and -my- suffixes incorporate those
prepositions into the verb.
bai-buti-nyu masi 'to plant (oneself) in a field'
bai-buti-myu lotiloti 'to plant in oneself flowers' = to plant oneself with
tai-buti lotiloti 'to plant flowers'
tai-buti-nyu masi 'to plant in the field' = to plant the field
nai-buti-myu lotiloti 'to be planted in oneself flowers' = to be planted with
sai-buti-nyu masi 'to be planted in the field'
bai-ceke temu 'to learn the text'
sai-ceke 'to be learnt'
tai-ceke temu 'to teach the text'
sai-tai-ceke-nye tosi 'to be taught to the child'
tai-ceke-nye tosi 'to teach to the child'
nai-tai-ceke-mye temu 'to be taught the text'
bai-kemu-nya suba 'to build into a house' (speaking of a building)
bai-kemu-mya 'to build' (speaking of a building)
tai-kemu-nya suba 'to build (into) a house'
sai-kemu-nya suba 'to be built into a house' (speaking of a building)
nai-kemu-myu suba 'to be built on oneself a house' (speaking of land) = to be
built with a house
There are very long ones like sai-kai-bai-cile-mye temu 'to be let get
interested in the text'
I guess it's pretty confusing. I can't explain those things clearly :-(