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Verbal voice

From:Tom Wier <artabanos@...>
Date:Wednesday, May 31, 2000, 18:10
I've been reading Dixon's _Ergativity_, and he has this to say
about Dyirbal's "instrumentive" derivation (p. 170-171):

"Now Dyirbal has a derivation -- which we can call 'instrumentive' --
that places an underlying instrumental NP into derived O function,
demoting the underlying O into dative case, leaving A as is, and
marking the verb with the suffix -ma-l (which, like antipassive -Na-y,
comes between verb root and final inflection).

(65) yabu                   Numa-Ngu      balga-n            yugu-Ngu
       mother+ABS(O) father-ERG(A) hit-NONFUT  stick-INST
        father hit mother with a stick.

Thus, from (65) is derived:

(66) yugu       Numa-Ngu       balgal-ma-n                   yabu-gu
        stick(O) father-ERG(A)  hit-INSTV-NONFUT  mother-DAT
        father used a stick to hit mother"

("N" = [N])

I don't think I've ever seen anything like this before.  Do any conlangs
have this, or anything similar? Anybody know of any other natlangs
like this?

Tom Wier <artabanos@...>
"Cogito ergo sum, sed credo ergo ero."