Pirdänë - VERBS part I
|From:||Elliott Lash <al260@...>|
|Date:||Sunday, January 28, 2001, 22:26|
Since I'm not sure where I'm going with the verbal system, I've descided to
split this post into two, perhaps by whatever time I post the second half, the
verbal system will be complete (as complete as it will ever be that is). The
details may even change completely, but as it stands, the verbal system of
Pirdänë is presented below:
This post will deal with tenses, moods and infinite forms will have to come later.
In terms of forming tenses, verbs are classified into four conjugations: -R
stems, Liquid Finals, Dental Finals, and all other finals. For this post, the
example verbs will be: Adhë "to say" (-r stem), Här "to watch" (Liquid
final), S>kart "to bring, tow" (dental stem) (please note S> = s-hacek), Bin
"to touch" (other final).
The tense stems are as follows:
-R stem: adhr- adhril-
Liquid Final: härd- häril-
Dental Final: s>karç-* s>karil-
Other Final: bin- binil-
*the tense stem for dental's is formed by adding -s>, which affects the specific
final in the different ways:
-t + -s> becomes -ç
-d + -s> becomes -ç
-th + -s> becomes -s>
-dh + -s> becomes -gy
To the present stem the following endings are added in all cases:
1s: -ëv 1p: -ëvê
2s: -ë 2p: -ës>
3s: ** 3p: -ê
** The 3rd person singular is formed differently for each conjugation:
-R stem: adhrëd "he says"
Liquid final härd "he watches"
Dental final s>karç "he brings"
Other final: bin "he touches"
The past tense is similar to the past tense in Slavic languages, in that the stem
given above is really an inflecting participle, and the endings are reduced
forms of the past tense of "to be"
For animate gender the participle becomes: -u
therefore: adhru-,häru-, s>kartu-, binu-.
For inanimate gender, the participle becomes: -ilë
therefore: adhrilë-,härilë-, s>kartilë, binilë-,
For the plural, the participle becomes: -ilõ
therefore: adhrilõ-,härilõ, s>kartilõ, binilõ-
The endings are the same for all conjugations, since they are reduced from the
past tense of "to be"
1s: -v 1p: -vê
2s: -(zero) 2p: -s>
3s: -d 3p: -(zero)
As an example: ADHRIL- "HAVING SAID"
In the next post, I'll have participles, infinitives, moods (especially the negative mood!)