Re: THEORY: Bivalent Intransitive Verbs
|From:||Patrick Littell <puchitao@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, August 3, 2005, 4:05|
On 8/2/05, Tom Chappell <tomhchappell@...> wrote:
Does anyone on the list know anything about natlangs with Bivalent
> Intransitive verbs?
I think I may have mentioned it in a previous conversation of ours, but
Manam has something very much like this.
Verbs are categorized by their minimum valency, but each verb may take, in
addition, one extra argument that is *not* the direct object. (That is, does
not fill the "patient" agreement slot on the verb.) What role this argument
fills depends on the verb -- it's not always, for example, Beneficiary.
(Maybe it's not ever Benificiary, which has its own way of being marked on
the verb, but I don't remember.) As I had mentioned, it's a bit of a
crapshoot as to which role is realized as what object for a given verb.
And, as mentioned, in 3-argument bivalent (transitive) verbs, the speaker
may choose which non-subject argument to treat as a "Patient" and which to
treat as the "extra" argument via the interesting extension of the
transitivizing suffix -a?.
This is not a case of a *required* 2-argument intransitive verb, but worth
This reminds me of an oddity in the agreement system of Kokota that you'll
find interesting. (Thanks, Roger; I don't know if anyone else made use of
your link, but I studied it in depth.)
Kokota agreement works like so: There's a hierarchy of semantic roles
something like Agent/Stative > Experiencer > Location/Source/Goal > Patient.
("Statives" are the subjects of stative verbs.) The subject slot will
reference the (non-oblique) argument that is highest in this hierarchy, and
may not reference Patients. The object slot references the highest
(non-oblique) argument that is not an Agent/Stative.
A/S E L/S/G P
The only thing is, there's no rule against both slots referencing the same
participant. So with experiential verbs, the experiencer is *both* -- it's
simultaneously the highest non-patient and the highest non-agent. There are
also a number of verbs that can either be ordinary-paradigm verbs or
experiential-paradigm verbs, depending on... hmm, I think the level of
agency, like a Fluid-S system.
Neat idea: For agreement, make a +HR slot and a +LR slot. When the main
argument is ABS, it is referenced in *both*.
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