going without "without" - problem solved
|From:||Matt Pearson <mpearson@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, August 18, 1999, 8:11|
Thanks to everybody for your input on my problem! After
weighing the options, I've decided to convey the sense of
"without" by means of various periphrastic constructions.
When referring to a missing object, the object in question
occurs in a compound headed by the noun "otia", meaning
"lack", and the whole thing is put in the comitative case:
Ne nelhe itak otiaia tumulna
she.Abs left the.Com lack-Com coat-her
"She left without her coat"
(lit. "She left with-the lack [of] her-coat")
When referring to an event which failed to accompany the
main event, an adverbial clause (headed by a comitative
determiner) is used, with the verb negated. Compare:
Ne nelhe itak hesulyina
she.Abs left the.Com cry-Prog-Dep
"She left crying"
(lit. "She left with-it that-[she]-is-crying")
Ne nelhe itak hesulotiyina
she.Abs left the.Com cry-Neg-Prog-Dep
"She left without crying"
or "She left not crying"
(lit. "She left with-it that-[she]-is-not-crying")
This is the solution that seems to fit best with the
character of the language.