Different romanisation schems
|From:||Carlos Thompson <cthompso@...>|
|Date:||Tuesday, April 13, 1999, 23:15|
In my development stages of Hangkerim I'm using several romanisation
schems, depending if I'm resalting orthography or phonology and the way
I'm marking tones (ASCII, Latin-1, etc.). But given the history of the
language I will supose there exist several romanization schems actually
used for Hangkerimce: that used by Spaniards when they invaded
Hangkerim, which has survived in Kizidanoce, the schem used by
Englishmen who studied Hangkerimce during the British occupation, the
schems used in dictionaries or by scholars in Europe or the American
nations that used Roman alphabet.
I supose this exist the same way there is no single schem for romanised
Chiness or Russian.
In English texts, the Russian /StS/ is usually writen <shch>, while I've
seen <s'c'> in other texts... would Frenchmen write <chtch>? I'm not
sure but I guess I sow <sjtj> in a Swedish text.
I guess the same happend into Hangkerimce, the schem I've given is the
official transcription (like Pinyi) but is not the only one around.
This is the official romanization (which could be either lowercase or
uppercase), uppercase is preffered for orthographic transcriptions:
opening consonants and nominal values:
H h or ?
Tones (Hangkerim official marking, tone description, my ASCII)
unmarked low _
rounded ^ or macron high ^
upsidedown ^ falling raising ~
acute raising /
grave falling \
Tones are marked above the vowel.
For phonetic transcriptions the following conventions are followed.
Schwas and lax vowels use the original vowel.
Diphthongised vowels use <i> for [I] or [j], <u> for [U] or [w], <e>
<o> is used for monophtong [o] or [O].
<b> is used for voiced P: [b] or [B]
<f> is used for voiceless V: [f] or [P]
<g> is used for voiced K: [g] or [G]
<j> is used for fricative Y: [j\]
<mh> is used for silent M: [m_0]
<nh> is used for silent N: [n_0]
<ng> is used for velar N: [N]
<qu> is used for labialized K: [k_w] or [g_w]
<s> is used for alveolar Z: [s] or [z]
<t> is used for voiceless D: [t]
<th> is used for affricate Z: [ts]
<w> is used for non-vibrant R: [?w]
<x> is used for velar H: [x]
all sounds are written to the closest symbol, reduplication is avoided
Example: HAN^KE~RIM/ would be writen phoneticaly:
where ^ means high-tone mark over previous vowel, ~ means falling-rising
tone mark over previous vowel and ' means acute mark over previous
Carlos Eugenio Thompson Pinz=F3n
Di mi beh em je lok mi ju je kom lon vu am je