Re: Click consonants
|From:||Eddy Ohlms <etg@...>|
|Date:||Friday, December 19, 2003, 5:10|
> It's probably best to compare the dorsal stops available in a language to
> the click accompaniments it manifests. For instance, Dahalo, a Cushitic
> language that contains clicks has voiceless, prenasalized voiceless,
> voiced, prenasalized voiced, and ejective velar stops /k, g, k', Nk, Ng/,
> plus the same set labialized /kw, gw, k', Nkw, Ngw, k'w/(but no velar
> nasal at all!), but only voiced and voiceless nasalized clicks, both plain
> and labialized /N|, N_o|, N|w, N_o|w/. Dahalo also is limited in having
> only dental clicks, so its inventory is quite impoverished compared to
> other click languages.
Fascinating. I've been wondering what clicks Dahalo has.
> Hadza has voiceless aspirated & unaspirated, voiced, prenasalized vls
> aspirated & voiced, and ejective velar stops plus a velar nasal, and all
> also labialized *except* for the prenasalized stops, /kh, k, g, k', N, Nkh,
> Ng, khw, kw, gw, k'w, Nw/. In contrast it has only three click
> accompaniments, voiceless (unaspirated), nasalized, and voiceless nasalized
> plus glottal stop /k|, N|, N_o|'/. Hadza has dental, alveolar, and lateral
> clicks, similar to the Nguni Bantu languages (Xhosa, Zulu, etc), though
> some speakers are reported to have a flapped allophone of the alveolar
> click, in which the tongue hits the floor of the mouth after its alveolar
> contact is released.
Cool. That answers a lot of questions about Hadza for me.
> !Xoo, on the other hand, is typical of the southern Khoisan languages in
> having a much larger inventory of both dorsal stops - both velar and
> uvular - and click accompaniments, although it actually has *more* click
> accompaniments than plain dorsals, /kh, k, g, k', kx', gkh, gkx' (the last
> two are prevoiced stops), qh, q, G, q', Gqh/ vs clicks /k|h, k|, g|, k|x,
> k|x', gk|x, gk|x', q|h, q|, G|, q|', gq|h, Gq|h, N|, N_o|, 'N|, N_o|'/. !
> Xoo also has a large set of clicks, labial, dental, alveolar, palatal, and
> lateral. Surprisingly, labial clicks only occur in a few Southern Khoisan
> languages and in the now-defunct Damin.
How do you know that about !Xóõ? I can find very little on it. A decendent of
my main conlang Kûtêlku, has prevoiced sounds. This conlang is called N!à. A
good example of a prevoiced click in it is the word for "fall", which is