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Phaleran update: more valence changing operations

From:Thomas R. Wier <trwier@...>
Date:Sunday, September 23, 2001, 22:04
Okay, so I've been fiddling with Phaleran's voice-system
recently, and here are some new features:


There is a distinction between the negative causative
in which someone was not the cause, as if he weren't
present or knowledgeable about the action, and one
where the subject wasn't the cause but was aware of the
action, and either failed to act in time or was prevented
in some other way from acting:

  Direct causation:
  Atherlu    g|arituo þasu     šr|eþnutenthai.
  father.ERG son.DAT  food-ABS eat.CAUS.NEG.3SgPfIr.S
  'The father forced his son not to eat the food'

  Indirect (unwitting) causation:
  Ather      eo tahnoi štî  g|aru   þasu     šr|eteistai
  father-ABS 3p cause  that son.ERG food-ABS eat.NEG.3SgProgIr.S
  'The father caused his son not to eat the food'

  Indirect (but helpless) causation:
  Ather      eo tahnoi štima    g|aru   þasu     šr|eteistai
  father-ABS 3p cause  that-not son.ERG food-ABS eat.NEG.3SgProgIr.S
  'The father was unable to prevent his son from not eating
  the food.'

There's plenty of room for tweaking here; I frankly haven't
thought out all the possible ramifications of the negatives
on the logical structure of the language yet.


Inherently transitive, ditransitive and quotative roots
may be causativized by suffixing /-xegi/ 'by proxy'. When
the final segment of the preceding morpheme is a V, the
allomorph [xegi is used; otherwise, the initial /x/
assimilates to the qualities of the immediately previous

  lu-   'X hits Y'     luxegi 'X has Y hit Z' (> ditrans.)
  stan- 'X attacks Y'  stannegi 'X has Y attack Z' (> ditrans.)
  gwel- 'X goes'       gwellegi 'X evacuates Y' (> trans.)

  Ahrallu      t'ulwa     gwelleginti
  governor.ERG palace-ABS go.PROX.3SgPfRe.S
  'The Governor evacuated the palace.'

  Stolyanallu     didirwawo      pû      tšeþþeginnon
  minister.PL.ERG PL.soldier.DAT boy-ABS plot-against.PROX.3PLPfRe.D.Q
  'The ministers had the soldiers assassinate the boy[-king], they say'


A derivational suffix _-lgi_ turns nouns into negative
verbs meaning 'not have X':

  hlantra  'house'
  hlantralgisti  'He/she doesn't have a house'

These can also use plural forms of nouns:

  hlantrana 'houses'
  hlantranalgisti 'He/she doesn't have houses'

This is really a narrow form of noun incorporation, but
this is the only kind that exists in Standard Phaleran,
though other dialects do have more extensive such systems.
There is no corresponding attributive suffix to turn nouns
into 'have X'.

Thomas Wier <trwier@...>

"Aspidi men Saiôn tis agalletai, hên para thamnôi
  entos amômêton kallipon ouk ethelôn;
autos d' exephugon thanatou telos: aspis ekeinê
  erretô; exautês ktêsomai ou kakiô" - Arkhilokhos