Theiling Online    Sitemap    Conlang Mailing List HQ   


From:Jake X <starvingpoet@...>
Date:Sunday, January 5, 2003, 23:14
OK, here's the language that started me thinking about object incorporation.
Unfortunately, the way it turned
out (with one long "word" per sentence unit), incorporation would be
irrelevent, with the object already by nature
in the same word as the subject and the verb. :)

The letters are pronounced more or less like IPA, except e = /E/,  y = /j/,
and ü = /y/. I won't go into the
phonology of G'oxayo now, because I think the grammar is more interesting,
and have worked on it more.

Each "base unit" is CV.  I set up a system of elision to make "compound"
units into words of their own, which drops
a syllable or two and uses the vowel of the last elided syllable in place of
the vowel at the beginning of the elision.
A great example of this is the name of the language, G'oxayo:

G'oxayo is an elision of "gato xayo," or "I speak.  S/He hears [me]."
ga    to           xa      yo
V (pro)N       V  (pro)N
speak  I         hear  s/he

Unit Order

In intransitive sentences, approximately VSM, where M is a modifyer.
In transitive sentences, approximately VOSM.  If the verb is transitive, and
there is only one noun (to be subj/obj),
the noun is the subject and the object is the subject of the previous
sentence.  This construction is often used
where another language might use a subordinate clause, and is in use in the
compound G'oxayo (see above example).

Noun Units

Mostly consisted of compound roots, with or without elision.  Pluralization
is obtained by root doubling.
(e.g.  foxo = 1 sun, foxofoxo = multi suns).


I found it more convenient to group all the modifyers (adjectives and
adverbs), in one section of the sentence/word.
To keep it clear what modifies what, I worked out a system where I suffix
the modifyer with either -ko or -ke.  If the
suffix is -ko, the modifyer goes on the subject (and as such the verb, or
the entire sentence).  If -ke, it modifies the
object.  Modifyers without a suffix can go in the verb section if they
strongly effect the quantity of the verb (this is a
judgement call, usually words like often and always apply), and as long as
such usage would not make the rest of the
sentence/word ambiguous.


One of the things I worked out first (and the most fun) was the pronoun
system.  I limited the one root pronouns to
"to," I, "yo," s/he (human), ka (animal), and sa (inanimate).  For second
person singular, I use "yoxako/-ke," which
directly translates as he who hears.  (The use of the modifying suffix means
those pronouns change with case while
the simple ones do not).  Of course, I deemed three syllables too long for
common usage of the second
person, so it can be elided even as short as y'e (but not y'o, because that
would be condused with "yo").  For the
first person plural, I divided it into many categories, including
toweyoxako/-ke, meaning "I and you," running all the
way up to "towey'akoweyoyo/toweya'keweyoyo," meaning I, you, and multi
others.  Third plural is simple doubling,

That's alot for at once, don't you think?  I'll write more if anyone is


P.S.  I'm working on a conscript for it too, but that's not really done yet.