Re: Applicatives, Anyone?
|From:||David Peterson <digitalscream@...>|
|Date:||Friday, September 27, 2002, 4:34|
There's nothing very spectacular about the applicative in Zhyler. Here's a rundown:
1.) The main function of the applicative is to promote an indirect, benefactive or
locative object. So, for example, you have the verb /elen/, which means "to
give". In an ordinary sentence: /lis amSar elym/ (you-DAT. book-ACC.
give-PRES.-1sg.), "I give the book to you." You add the applicative, and you
get: /lir elDexym/ (you-ACC. give-PRES.-APPL.-1sg.), "I 'give to' you", or
however you want to translate that. Maybe "I give something to you"? "I'm
giving something your, and you're the one that's getting"? Something like that.
If you wanted to reintroduce the book, you'd put it in the instrumental:
/amSat/ (/t/ being the instrumental ending). You can do this with other verbs
whose primary indirect objects either take the dative, the benefactive, or the
locative, and it's lexicalized, so it can only be one, and you just have to
2.) The applicative can also be used to drag cases onto a verb. So, take the
sentence, "I read the book about the house". Ordinarily, it'd be:
/amSar ezdZelev2 amlarum/ (book-ACC. house-TOPICAL read-PAST-1sg.)
Add the applicative, though, and you get:
/ezdZer amDeklevlerym/ (house-ACC. read-APPL.-TOP.-PAST-1sg.) "I about-read the
house", or "I read about the house".
And, again, if you wanted to reintroduce the book, you'd do so with the instrumental.
So, nothing really out of the ordinary. That's how it goes.