SILINDION: Personal Pronouns
|From:||Elliott Lash <al260@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, February 14, 2001, 21:09|
In reply to the request that I post something about Silindion, I have decided to
start with Personal Pronouns, because they are probably among the easier things
to explain. Personal Pronouns. These pronouns are used to replace a person or a
thing. They have several different forms according to their use in the
sí "I" hyán "we" hyánna "all of us"
lë "thou" nássa "you"
éin "one/he/she/it" ánto "people/they"
tái "both of them"
éino "he" énto "they" (m)
éinïe "she" éntïe "they" (f)
éss "it" énta "they" (n)
a. "éin" and "ánto" are used when a specific subject is not needed.
b. to refer to a very limited number of nouns, "éino" or "éinïe" are used
instead of "éss" to express "it".
c. similarly, "énto" and "éntïe" may replace "énta" in certain situations.
d. when the pronouns are used with the verb, they follow the third person singular.
sít-/síss- "me" án-/hyát-/hyán-/hyáss-/át- "us"
lít-/líss- "thee" anát-/anáss- "you"
ó- "him/it/her" téi- "them"
Examples of Declension of Oblique stems:
ME HIM HER US
sítti óssi ïessi hyátti/hyánti/átti/ánti
sínti óni ïeni hyánti/hyánni/ánti/ánni
sílim ólim ïelim hyálim/hyálim/álim/álim
sítma ótma ïetma hyátma/hyátma/átma/átma
sínta ónna ïenna hyánta/hyánna/ánta/ánna
sívi óvi ïevi hyávi/hyávi/ávi/ávi
síssi ë ïe hyássi/hyáni/ássi/áni
sínta ómma ïemma hyánta/hyámma/ánta/ámma
a. both the stem itself and the endings can be affected by various alterations
(lenition, metathesis, absorbtion, vowel change) as shown.
b.in the 1st. person plural, the various stems all mean the same thing but are used
in different areas or styles. án- or át- is used in H.S. while hyát- and
hyán- are used in L.S. The stems with -t are more northern.
c. in poetic language (both H.S. and L.S.) the locative
form is used as a genitive meaning: "mine" etc.
d. the following cases are rare in L.S.: acc., loc. (except in the use described
in c, and in the 3rd person), instrumental (except in the third person).
e. the dative is also almost dead in L.S., but is kept to use in the construction
sïello + dat. and to help disambiguate other constructions. (sïello + dat =
f. in early H.S. and in Middle and Old Silindic, essive forms of the pronouns are
found: síssar/síthar, líssar/líthar, ór/ïer, ánar/ássar/áthar,
anássar/anáthar, teir.These pronouns are used to represent the present tense
of the verb "to be".
They are usually found in emphatic or contrastive structures. They are not used at
all in L.S and normal HS.
a. to replace a possessed noun
b. in poetry to replace the possessive adjective suffixes.
éhya "mine" ánya/hyánya "ours"
élya "thine" anátya "yours"
éya "his/hers/its" táya "theirs"
ényë "hers" táyë
c. "éya" is only used when a more specific description is not wanted. It is also
the only pronoun available to translate "its"
d. ényë is a poetic forms referring to the Moon Goddess Alárïe. Táyë is a
poetic form used to refer to the the three phases of the moon: nóna "blooming"
níva "beauty" sámma "death"
These pronouns are used in HS as the object of a preposition, and when the object of
the verb (either direct or indirect) is unstressed, that is not emphatic.
Otherwise, the oblique pronouns are used. In LS they are the main way to
express the objects of the verb, whether or not they are stressed. They are
used as the objects of a preposition.
-sis "me" -hyass/-syass/-na
-li "thee" -nass "you"
-o "him/her/it" -ta/-ssa "them"
a. the initial s in -sis is lenited if it follows a vowel. The same process
accounts for the difference between -hyass and -syass and -ta and -ssa.
b. the pronouns are used both as direct and indirect objects.
c. the pronouns are attached to the preceding word.
d. direct objects usually follow indirect objects.
e. when attached to a preposition, the accent is usually shifted to the right one syllable.
f. -na is used primarily with prepositions and verb forms other that the 3rd sing.
g. the forms that start with a vowel may appear differently because of contractions.
h. the third person pronouns are used resumptively, when the object of a verb is
preceded by the definite article or is defined in some way (through the use of
demonstrative adjectives or possessives.) This usage is
not strictly observed in speach and LS writings or poetry.
nésyasso "he gives it to us"
noróna "toward us"
tilínta i vuonyán "he sees the sheep"
tili-n-ta i vuon-ya-n
See-3rdpres-them the sheep-plural-acc
I guess that will have to be it...i really hope this makes it thru to the list,
unlike the last post..anyway. Maybe next time i'll do nouns