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Re: cases

From:daniel andreasson <danielandreasson@...>
Date:Sunday, December 1, 2002, 21:31
Christophe Grandsire wrote:

> > And of course, there are those languages called active > > which treat S, A and P all differently :)) .
Well, not quite. Rather, S is marked as either A or P depending on like, you know, semantics and stuff.
> > And the image is more blurred by > > languages which seem to use different systems depending > > on whether the subject is animate, willing, etc... :))) . > > But for a simple image just take what I said before.
I'm gonna resend this below for like the millionth time. Apologies in advance to anyone who read it before. It's just that I'm a bit anal about this active thingee. Anyway. <OLD POSTING> An active language is a language which organizes its core grammar so that the argument of some one-place predicates is marked like the A of a two-place predicate, while the argument of the other one-place predicates is marked like the P of a two-place predicate. If the sole argument of a one-place (intransitive) predicate (verb) is marked as A or P depends on the semantics (of either the verb or the noun phrase). My own investigations show that there are three reasons to mark A's and P's differently. i) event vs. state ii) control iii) performance, effect and instigation "Event vs. state" means that if the verb is an event (like 'run', 'dance', 'chat', 'kill'), then the argument is marked like A. If it's a state ('be hungry', 'be tired'), then it's marked like P. "Control" means that if the argument of the verb is in control of the event (or state), then it's marked as A. If it is not in control, then it is marked as P. 'Go' and 'be careful' are controlled predicates. 'Die' and 'fall' are not. Then there's "performance, effect and instigation". Some predicates are in some way performed or instigated by the actor. However, they need not be controlled. These are verbs like 'sneeze' and 'vomit'. In languages like Lakhota and Georgian, it's enough if the actor in some way performs the action (or state), (s)he doesn't need to be in control. Thus the argument of predicates like 'sneeze' and 'hiccup' are marked as A. Languages of group ii) ("control") mark 'sneeze' and 'hiccup' predicates as P. </OLD POSTING> Okay. Now you can hit me. ::takes heed:: ||| daniel ------------------------------------------------------------ "You can't post that on the Internet, you don't even know if it's true!" - Lisa Simpson to Homer. ------------------------------------------------------------