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Re: Typologic survey, part II

From:The Gray Wizard <dbell@...>
Date:Sunday, February 4, 2001, 18:08
> From: taliesin the storyteller > > ---- PART II Conlang Typlogic Survey 2001 ---- > > House-keeping data > > Name of the participating conlang: > (same as on part I please :) )
amman iar
> 2: Order of genitive (G), and noun (N) > That is: Possessor/owner and possession/owned thing > Is the order GN, NG or both? > How is it shown?
Within the NP, the preferred word order is N [Gen] [Adj] [PP], where Gen represents an associative (Genitive) relation, N represents the head noun, Adj represents any adjective modifiers of the head noun and PP represents an optional postposition, thus, i linnar ainurrion inainien The holy song of the Ainur i linnar ainurrion inainien N Gen Adj the song of the ainur holy The Possessor takes the Genitive case marking (-ion) .
> 3: Order of adjective (A) and noun (N)
See previous example, i.e. NA. NPs containing multiple adjectives are formed using conjoined adjectives, thus: i gurlavan debaran The brown fox i gurlavan velim The quick fox i gurlavan debaran na lim vas The quick, brown fox (lit. the brown fox is quick) i gurlavan debaran na velim na orneth las The old, quick, brown fox (lit. the brown and quick fox is old) An alternative form of the second example has been attested in some dialects, i.e. i gurlavan debaran na velim the quick, brown fox (lit the brown and quick fox) This form, however, is always limited to two adjective modifiers and one would never hear an alternate of the third example above. i.e. *i gurlavan debaran na velim na lorneth the old, quick, brown fox (lit. the brown and quick and old fox)
> Does the language have a closed class of adjectives? > - If yes, > - how are they shown? (see question 2 above) > - list them
Not anymore, but a previous incarnation of the language did include a small closed set of productive adjectival suffixes that included the following set: Large,Small Dark,Light Old,New Bad,Good Some of these have been lexicalized in the current language, but they are no longer productive. Adjectives in the current language are an open class.
> Regardless of being a separate class or not: > How are they similar, how do they differ from verbs and nouns?
When used attributively, adjectives are distinguished by a unique prefix that defines the semantics of the relationship with the nouns that they modify. Many of these are deverbal, consisting of the verb root and the adjective prefix. The prefixes include: descriptive ve- describes what the noun is like. (riel vemarlis, beautiful woman) purposive pa- describes what the noun is used for. (tornil pamurmlir, sleeping bag) material ge- describes what the noun is made from. (teleg galdar, wooden leg) size ma- describes how big or small the noun is. (caras mabeleg, large house) color de- describes the color of the noun. (curunar demith, gray wizard) shape ta- describes the shape of the noun. (palag tacom, round table) count be- describes how many of the noun. (lhibai becaer, ten fingers) age la- describes how old the noun is. (cair lorseinnon, ancient ship) origin ha- decribes where something comes from. (sinair harhun, eastern manners) Predicate Adjectives also follow the noun, but the adjectival prefix detaches from the adjective and is placed at the end of the adjective phrase. In this position, the adjectival particle takes auxiliary verb inflections. i gurunaran demith The Gray Wizard i gurunaran de- mith ADJ The wizard gray i gurunaran mith das The wizard is gray. i gurunaran mith de- -0 -as AP: :DEF :PRES the wizard gray colored is
> Can they take a copula (that is: need/don't need equivalent of "to be")?
Yes, see predicate adjectives in previous example. David David E. Bell The Gray Wizard Wisdom begins in wonder!