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CHAT: affricates/grammar help/intransitivity/free word order

From:# 1 <salut_vous_autre@...>
Date:Wednesday, December 29, 2004, 7:57
are there languages using others affricates than [t_-S], [d_-Z], [ts], or

I've never heard about other than these (and i'm not sure than [ts] and [dz]
are usually considered like affricates)

there could have [kx], [gG], [qX], [G\R], [pp\], [bB], or the labio-dental
versions of the 2 lasts, that are easily differenciable

and there is [t_+T] (like t and the voiceless "th" sound) and the same thing
voiced wich sound less differenciable of only [T] and [D]

are these existing in some language?

because I'm now thinking about a conlang in wich I need these (at least the
billabial, labio-dental, velar, and uvular ones) or I'll miss some sounds

and another thing (in the same conlang) is that I use a vowel change and a
consonant change in verbs to express the voices

I'll explain it later when my idea will be clear but I miss something

- When the verb is unchanged it is the active voice
- When there is only the vowel change it's the middle voice
- When it is only the consonant change it is the passive voice
- But I still need something to represent when both changes are used

Is there an other voice that I don't know wich I could represent or
something similar to voice to tell

I've already my way to present tenses and aspects so I can't make one of
these with that remaining hole in my grammar

And because I want to present moods with another way I prefer not saying one
with that hole, it would make impossible to say that mood at that voice

I would also like to know if there are languages where intransitivity
doesn't exists

Probably that the same accusative pronoun than the subject can be used to
show it happens on itselt in addition with the use of the middle voice

It's because I would like to avoid having to deal with sentences without
object it would ruin my system

last thing would be to ask for this:

can a language without an almost clear way to recognize verbs from nouns
have a free or variable word other?

by "an almost clear way to recognize verbs from nouns" I mean like in
spanish, each verbs end in "r" or in french, each verbs end in sounds [R]
("ir", "oir", "re") or [e] ("er")

but in english for example there's no way to distinc verbs from nouns and,
sometimes, from adjectives making that a word like "grow" can be a verb or a

and theorically, every nouns can be used as a verb. I've already heard a
funny song ending with "my cellular banana your phone" because nothing shows
that it could not be a verb


Andreas Johansson <andjo@...>
Philip Newton <philip.newton@...>
# 1 <salut_vous_autre@...>