3d person imperative
|From:||Roger Mills <romilly@...>|
|Date:||Tuesday, May 9, 2000, 2:53|
Douglas Koller wrote:
>I should imagine that Italian and Portugues operate similarly; French worksa little
French, perhaps by now. But my 1921ed. (1st printing 1901) "Complete
French Grammar" by Fraser and Squair, gives imperatives for e.g. donner as:
donne....qu'il donne....donnons....donnez.....qu'ils donnent
At least by St.Jerome's time if not earlier, Latin apparently used the
subjunctive as a 3d pers. imperative-- "adveniat regnum tuum" etc. (Would we
call the Engl. "Thy kingdom come, thy will be done..." an imperative? or a
I don't recall ever encountering the Latin Future Imperative, except in
Obconlang: Kash would have a little trouble with such things, as the
Imperative is strictly 2nd person. The hortative particle _endo_ could
handle the Lord's Prayer -- endo paranggakarundi yarata "Thy kingdom
come..." (endo HORT -par.añ.kakarun.ti HON.NOM.king.2s-poss - ya.rata
3s.come); or _endo yaripa_
"let it rain, would that it would rain, I hope it rains...etc.", but it
wouldn't be appropriate in a case like: (well, we're soaked anyway, so) let
it rain, which at least colloquially would probably be more or less: ye,
cakashushap, ripa-ripapo (hey, accidentally [caka-] soaked, rain-rain.just).
A little more elegantly, Marie Antoinette might have said: Na, kunak
inahandopo kumus "Well, maybe they will just eat cake" or: kunak ipole
inahambo kumus "maybe they can just eat cake". Had she said "endo
inahan...." her courtier would have rushed to the palace bakery for cake
(actually brioche, wasn't it?) to hand out.
"Have him come here", "Let him come here" would require re-phrasing to
"permit that...."or "order that...."
A sort of imperative is the particle _ara_ "come on, let's...."
Ara micosa(po) "come on, let's go" (mi- 1pl., cosa 'to go')
Ara, weleka (~welepo) "come on, give (sci. ...it here, to me/him etc.)/
hand it over"
Ara minahan "let's eat!"
And of course _yup ~ yuyup_ "hurry up!" But that gets us to interjections,
which are a whole nother matter.