Ke'kh - degrees of volition
|From:||Jörg Rhiemeier <joerg.rhiemeier@...>|
|Date:||Tuesday, September 19, 2000, 22:12|
"H. S. Teoh" wrote:
> Random fact of the day about my conlang... ;-)
> Physical verb, Ke'kh /k<h>Ex/ (Kirsh), "to harm", "to injure", "to hurt".
> Incidental forms: "to (unintentionally) hurt or injure"
> Inceptive: Ke'kh /k<h>Ex/
> Progressive: k3Ki'kh /kV"k<h>ix/
> Perfective: Kuu'kh /k<h>u:x/
> Deliberative forms: "to deliberately hurt or injure"
> Inceptive: uKe'kh /uk<h>Ex/
> Progressive: kuKi'kh /kuk<h>ix/
> Perfective: Ku-u'kh /k<h>u?ux/
> Consequential forms: "to be caused to hurt or injure"
> Inceptive: aKe'kh /ak<h>Ex/
> Progressive: kaKi'kh /kak<h>ix/
> Perfective: Kau'kh /k<h>a?ux/
Ah, degrees of volition! And an interesting morphology.
Admit that you have stolen the idea from Nur-ellen! ;-)
Well, just kidding.
Nur-ellen also grammaticalizes degrees of volition, though in a very
different way, namely by using different cases and prepositions with the
Example sentence: "Turin killed Beleg." (While we are on such martialic
Incidental (Turin didn't intend to kill Beleg, but did it out of a
as in _The Silmarillion_):
Na Turin dagnent Veleg.
DAT AGT.Turin kill.PAST OBJ.Beleg
"It occured to Turin that he killed Beleg."
Deliberative (Turin intended to kill Beleg):
Turin dagnent Veleg.
AGT.Turin kill.PAST OBJ.Beleg
"Turin killed Beleg."
Consequential (Turin is caused by someone else to kill Beleg, no matter
he wants to or not):
Ni Durin dagnent Veleg.
INST OBJ.Turin kill.PAST OBJ.Beleg
"Someone [ab]used Turin to kill Beleg."
Normally, the instrumental preposition is used with inanimate
but it is also used this way, expressing that the agent is just doing
of someone else, serving as an instrument of the latter.
This is the only degree of volition possible with an inanimate
Nur-ellen also has a fourth degree of volition that is difficult to
which expresses a state of "flow" or intrinsic motivation experienced
by the agent during his/her performance. I'll pick a different example
for this because using this construction with the verb "to kill" would
make any Elf turn green!
Ni Turin linnent.
COM AGT.Turin sing.PAST
"Turin sang in a state of flow."
Note the difference in case! The meaning of _ni_ here is comitative;
the "standard" usage is to say that someone does something along with
someone else, but it can also be used to express that someone enjoys
what he is doing to such a degree that he can be said to go along with
the action itself, and that it gains a dynamic on its own.
Does anyone else here have state of flow grammaticalized in their