New Lang, but Just For Fun (LONG)
|From:||Barry Garcia <barry_garcia@...>|
|Date:||Wednesday, January 19, 2000, 3:58|
>Right now, I have info on the particles ga, wa, o, no, mo, to, de, e and
>ni. If you want to post the list of them though, that would be cool, so
>everyone, and I, could get a better understanding.
I'll do just that right here and now for the benefit of anyone who wants
to know, but don't want to run to a library or bookstore :). I wont list
the examples (unless someone requests), but i'll give all of the uses that
are listed for each particle. If anyone wants to comment on these, please
do so. I've also included the other particles (aside from the case
particles) for your perusal.
No - Indicates posession, location, affiliation, attribute, apposition
Ga - follows nouns or pronouns, indicates subject, indicates object of
desire, ability, likes, and dislikes etc (they dont list all of the uses
unfortunately), and it's attached to a demonstrative like a connecting
wo (o) - follows nouns or pornouns, indicates object of an action verb,
indicates location with a verb of movement, indicates duration of an
action, indicates place where action commences
ni - indicates the person or thing to which an action extends, indicates
time, indicates place, indicates the object of an action, indicates the
object of an action, indicates destination or direction, indicates cause,
indicates ratio or proportion, etc., indicates the agent of an action,
indicates the result of change, indicates manner
e - indicates the direction of an action, indicates object of an action,
indicates destination, indicates location of an action
to - expresses the idea of "with", indicates a term of comparison,
indicates the result of change, indicates the content of an action or
state, indicates manner of an action or state
yori - indicates a term of comparison, indicates a limit
kara - used after nouns or pronouns, indicates point of departure, or
cause: indicates a spatial or temporal point of departure, expresses the
idea of "passing through", indicates extent, indicates source, indicates
constituent materials (what something is made of)
de - indicates location of an action, indicates instrument, means,
material, etc., indicates cause, reason, motive
made - used after nouns and pronouns, and connects them with verbal parts
or other particles: indicates the outer limits of an action in space or
time, expresses final extent of an action
dake - indicates a limit, expresses idea of "that much"
hodo - used after various noun and verb forms: expresses an approximation
of number or quantity, expresses and action or state resulting from some
characteristic, indicates 2 items: the second of which changes in direct
proportion to the first
wa - used after many kinds of words, the original use was to single out
one item of a group (you might find that important): singles out an item
from a group of things to do, singles out an item of subject matter about
which some information is given, expresses 2 or more contrasting
judgements, indicates emphasis
NOTE: in modern Japanese, wa is frequently used to express a word that
corresponds to the grammatical subject of a sentence in English.
mo - used after many kinds of words: coordinates 2 or mor concepts,
singles out one among many other implied concepts, expresses concept of
"also", used with a negative to express the idea of "nothing, no one"
shika - used with a negative to express the idea of "only"
ka - expresses a variety of questions
ne - used at the end of a sentence: expresses exclamation, expresses a tag
question, expresses a request for the listeners understanding, sympathy,
ne - appended to words or phrases as a transition word, or to adjust
sentence rhythm etc.
ba - expresses a possible condition, indicates the basis for a statement,
expresses an invariable cause and effect relationship, indicates a past
time for comparison with the present
to - used after the present tense form of verbs: joins two contemporaneous
actions, joins two sucessive ations, expresses the beginning or cause of
an action, expresses a preamble to what follows
te mo - used to express permission, etc
keredomo - used after verbs and -ii adjectives: expresses some sort of
contrast, joins a preamble to the main point of the sentence, simply joins
ga - used after verbs and -ii adjectives: joins a preamble to the main
part of the sentence, expresses a temporal relationship between the two
clauses, expresses contrast
no ni - expresses dissatisfaction, unexpectedness etc.
no de - expresses cause, reason, basis etc.
kara - expresses cause, reason, basis, etc., expresses the notion of
"having done such and such, it follows that...."
Anyway, the list is exhaustive. It should ve fairly easy to understand all
the uses listed. I hope this is useful for someone :).
It's worth the risk of burning, to have a second chance...