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New Lang, but Just For Fun (LONG)

From:Barry Garcia <barry_garcia@...>
Date:Wednesday, January 19, 2000, 3:58 writes:
>Right now, I have info on the particles ga, wa, o, no, mo, to, de, e and >ni. If you want to post the list of them though, that would be cool, so >everyone, and I, could get a better understanding. > >Nicole >--
I'll do just that right here and now for the benefit of anyone who wants to know, but don't want to run to a library or bookstore :). I wont list the examples (unless someone requests), but i'll give all of the uses that are listed for each particle. If anyone wants to comment on these, please do so. I've also included the other particles (aside from the case particles) for your perusal. CASE PARTICLES No - Indicates posession, location, affiliation, attribute, apposition Ga - follows nouns or pronouns, indicates subject, indicates object of desire, ability, likes, and dislikes etc (they dont list all of the uses unfortunately), and it's attached to a demonstrative like a connecting particle wo (o) - follows nouns or pornouns, indicates object of an action verb, indicates location with a verb of movement, indicates duration of an action, indicates place where action commences ni - indicates the person or thing to which an action extends, indicates time, indicates place, indicates the object of an action, indicates the object of an action, indicates destination or direction, indicates cause, indicates ratio or proportion, etc., indicates the agent of an action, indicates the result of change, indicates manner e - indicates the direction of an action, indicates object of an action, indicates destination, indicates location of an action to - expresses the idea of "with", indicates a term of comparison, indicates the result of change, indicates the content of an action or state, indicates manner of an action or state yori - indicates a term of comparison, indicates a limit kara - used after nouns or pronouns, indicates point of departure, or cause: indicates a spatial or temporal point of departure, expresses the idea of "passing through", indicates extent, indicates source, indicates constituent materials (what something is made of) de - indicates location of an action, indicates instrument, means, material, etc., indicates cause, reason, motive ADVERBIAL PARTICLES made - used after nouns and pronouns, and connects them with verbal parts or other particles: indicates the outer limits of an action in space or time, expresses final extent of an action dake - indicates a limit, expresses idea of "that much" hodo - used after various noun and verb forms: expresses an approximation of number or quantity, expresses and action or state resulting from some characteristic, indicates 2 items: the second of which changes in direct proportion to the first MODIFYING PARTICLES wa - used after many kinds of words, the original use was to single out one item of a group (you might find that important): singles out an item from a group of things to do, singles out an item of subject matter about which some information is given, expresses 2 or more contrasting judgements, indicates emphasis NOTE: in modern Japanese, wa is frequently used to express a word that corresponds to the grammatical subject of a sentence in English. mo - used after many kinds of words: coordinates 2 or mor concepts, singles out one among many other implied concepts, expresses concept of "also", used with a negative to express the idea of "nothing, no one" shika - used with a negative to express the idea of "only" SENTENCE PARTICLES ka - expresses a variety of questions ne - used at the end of a sentence: expresses exclamation, expresses a tag question, expresses a request for the listeners understanding, sympathy, agreement, etc. PARENTHETICAL PARTICLES ne - appended to words or phrases as a transition word, or to adjust sentence rhythm etc. CONNECTING PARTICLES ba - expresses a possible condition, indicates the basis for a statement, expresses an invariable cause and effect relationship, indicates a past time for comparison with the present to - used after the present tense form of verbs: joins two contemporaneous actions, joins two sucessive ations, expresses the beginning or cause of an action, expresses a preamble to what follows te mo - used to express permission, etc keredomo - used after verbs and -ii adjectives: expresses some sort of contrast, joins a preamble to the main point of the sentence, simply joins two clauses ga - used after verbs and -ii adjectives: joins a preamble to the main part of the sentence, expresses a temporal relationship between the two clauses, expresses contrast no ni - expresses dissatisfaction, unexpectedness etc. no de - expresses cause, reason, basis etc. kara - expresses cause, reason, basis, etc., expresses the notion of "having done such and such, it follows that...." Anyway, the list is exhaustive. It should ve fairly easy to understand all the uses listed. I hope this is useful for someone :). ________________________________________________ It's worth the risk of burning, to have a second chance...