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Re: Conditional Tenses in Romance Languages

From:Ray Brown <ray.brown@...>
Date:Sunday, July 11, 2004, 5:45
On Saturday, July 10, 2004, at 04:30 , Roger Mills wrote:

> Actually it was Barry Garcia who answered you, but I'm up on Spanish too > :-) > > The future and conditional in Span. (and French and I'm pretty sure Port. > )
Yep - true of French, Portugues & Caltalan.
> is based on _infinitive + haber_. The pres. indic. forms of Span. haber, > as > you probably know, are he, has, ha, hemos, habéis, han, so the future (all > reg. verbs) is: infinitive + -é, -ás, -á, -emos, -éis, -án. The > conditional > doesn't use identifiable imperf. forms of haber (había, habías etc.), just > the _imperfect_ endings, which gives infinitive > + -ía, -ías, -ía, -íamos, -íais, -ían
Yep - same with French, Catalan & Portuguese: basically inifinitive + endings of the imperfect indicative.
> Italian like the others uses the present forms of avere for the future, > but > oddly, the preterit forms for the conditional. I think that's unique in > the > Romance world.
Not sure if it's entirely unique - but it is among those that now enjoy official status.
> IIRC Romanian forms its future with the verb for 'to want';
Sort of. The auxiliary originated from Latin _uolo_ just as the verb _a vrea_ (<-- *vole:re, cf. French _vouloir_) did. But the auxiliary and the full verb are different; the present tense of each is: future auxiliary: voi, vei, va, vom, veţi, vor a vrea (to want, wish): vreau, vrei, vrea, vrem, vreţi, vor (For those with unicode-unfriendly mailers, ţ is t-cedilla, Unicode Hex. 1063, = /ts/) One of the ways of expressing the future in Romanian, is to use voi, vei etc + the plain infinitive (i.e. without the inifinitive marker _a_), e.g. voi pleca (I will leave), va pleca (he will leave) An alternative, more colloqiual, method of expressing the future is to use the present tense of _a avea_ (to have) plus a să clause with subjunctive verb. The present tense of _a avea_ is: am, ai, are, avem, aveţi, au. There is a third method, the most colloquial of all, and that is to use the invariable particle _o_ followed by a să clause. (să BTW is s + a-breve = /s@/) So, e.g. there are three ways of saying "I will leave...", namely: voi pleca; am să plec; o să plec. Similarly, s/he will leave: va pleca; are să plece; o să plece. Also, if the context is clear, just the plain ol' present tense will do to express futurity: plec (I'm leaving, I'll leave); pleacă (s/he's leaving, s/he'll leave) BTW, present subjective & present indic. are the same except, usually, in the 3rd person forms.
> I'm don't know > whether it has a conditional tense.
It has. It is formed by using an auxiliary verb with the plain infinitive. The auxiliary for the conditional tense is: aş, ai, ar, am, aţi, ar. e.g. aş pleca (I would leave), ar pleca (sh/he would leave; they would leave) (ş is s-cedilla = /S/). Ray =============================================== (home) (work) =============================================== "A mind which thinks at its own expense will always interfere with language." J.G. Hamann, 1760