Theiling Online    Sitemap    Conlang Mailing List HQ    Attic   

quadrivalent verb

From:Kenneth Asad <kenneth_asad@...>
Date:Monday, September 29, 2008, 16:19
Hi all.

I am wondering, is there any natlang - or for that matter conlang - that has
some quadrivalent verbs?

I am thinking about a type of verbs which has four arguements:
an agent; a patient; a recipient; and then something fourth.

I would imagine that quadrivalency would describe some kind of exchance.
In fact I am thinking about an example from the english language:

     he sold the book to her for 20 bucks

"he" is definitely the agent - and in fact also the subject;
"the book" is definitely the patient;
"her = she" is the recipient and is supplied with an adposition (= preposition).
as to "20 bucks"...
Well, it has an adposition :-) but so did "she" and this didn't stop "she" from
being the recipient...
As I see it, one could see "20 bucks" as being 'the exchange patient', or
something like that.

I haven't been able to find any other instances in english, nor my own native

In fact in danish the sentence would be:

     han solgte bogen til hende for 20 spir

What I'm not thinking about, though, is something like the causative voice.


deinx nxtxr <deinx.nxtxr@...>
Philip Newton <philip.newton@...>
taliesin the storyteller <taliesin-conlang@...>