Theiling Online    Sitemap    Conlang Mailing List HQ   

USAGE: Catalan (was: Romance demonstratives)

From:John Cowan <cowan@...>
Date:Tuesday, April 13, 1999, 17:37
FFlores wrote:

> Interesting thing -- and I'd never heard about it.
Apparently /s/ articles are found only on Mallorca/Majorca: # Only /l/ determiners are appropriate in formal styles. # In Majorcan literature it is common for /s/ forms # (*parlar salat*) to be restricted to the dialogue # of the Majorcan characters, /l/ articles being used # elsewhere. Even within *parlar salat*, /l/ determiners # are often used when the definiteness comes from # uniqueness of reference, e.g. *el cel* 'the sky', # *el bisbe* 'the bishop' [...]. =
> I *have* heard some Catalan though, in an almost > silent comic show. They call it a language, not a > dialect -- a nationalist thing, that is, because > I could understand everything perfectly, as it sounded > like Spanish without final vowels (that's essentially > Catalan :)
I'll add this to the list. After all, virtually all Catalan speakers in Spain (it is also spoken in France and in Alghero, a city in Sardinia, as well as on the Balearics) are fluent in Spanish. A vocabulary study by J. Llobera in 1968 showed that of 800 basic words, 155 (19%) were not cognate with their Spanish translations --- which does not mean there is no cognate anywhere in Spanish, but rather that it has a restricted, expanded, or simply different meaning. = Here are 52 of the 155, which are also distinct from their translations in Occitan, French, and Italian as well: aixecar 'raise' groc 'yellow' ampolla 'bottle' llavor 'seed' amunt 'up' fer malb=E9 'damage, spoil' avi, =E0via 'grandfather/mother' massa '(too) much' aviat 'soon' menjador 'dining room' barallar-se =E1rgue' mica 'bit' barret 'hat' mitj=F3 'sock' brut 'dirty' noi, noia 'boy/girl' butxaca 'pocket' oi '(tag question element)' capell=E0 'priest' pag=E8s 'peasant, farmer' dalt 'above, upstairs' paleta 'building worker' dolent 'bad' pujar 'go up' dur 'bring' raspall 'brush' eina 'tool' rentar 'wash' endur-se 'take away' ros 'fair (of skin)' enlloc 'anywhere/nowhere' soroll 'noise' enraonar 'talk' tancar 'shut' estimar 'love' tardor 'autumn' feina 'work' tou 'soft' forat 'hole' trencar 'break' fuster 'carpenter' treure 'take out/off' galleda 'bucket' vegada 'occasion' ganivet 'knife' vermell 'red' gens '(not) at all' vespre 'evening' gos 'dog' vora 'beside, edge' On the other hand, there are a large number of undoubted catalanisms in standard Spanish, of which the following is a sampling: Food terms: anguila 'eel', calamar 'squid', jurel 'mackerel', m=FAjol 'mullet', rape 'monkfish', manjar 'dish (of food)', an=EDs 'aniseed', butifarra 'a certain sausage', entrem=E9s 'hors d'oeuvre', escalfar 'to poach (eggs)', s=E9mola 'semolina', vinagre 'vinegar', vinagreta 'vinaigrette'. Other domestic terms: barraca 'stall', delantal 'apron', fog=F3n 'stove', patio 'courtyard', picaporte 'door-knocker', reloj 'clock', retrete 'lavatory', convite 'banquet'. Seafaring terms: aferrar 'grapple', bet=FAn 'bitumen', buque 'ship', esquife 'skiff', galera 'galley', gobernalle 'helm', golfo 'gulf', muelle 'pier', nao 'sailing ship', socaire 'lee (side opposite the wind)', surgir 'anchor', timonel 'helmsman'. Trade terms: a granel 'in bulk', mercader 'merchant', oferta 'offer'. Printing terms: imprenta 'printing', papel 'paper', prensa 'press', tilde '~ accent'. Animals and plants: becada 'woodcock', bosque 'forest', caracol 'snail', clavel 'carnation', d=E1til 'date', follaje 'foliage', palmera 'palm tree= '. Miscellaneous: avanzar 'advance', caja 'box', cordel 'cord', crisol 'crucible', escayola 'stucco', faena 'task', farol 'streetlamp', gafa 'hook', gr=FAa '(mechanical) crane', metal 'metal', nivel 'level', trasto 'piece of junk', viaje 'journey', cohete 'rocket', foll=F3n 'arrogant, cowardly', pila 'pile', seo 'cathedral', sor 'Sister (religious)', a=F1orar 'miss', retar 'challenge', trajinar 'transport', ultraje 'outrage'. -- = John Cowan You tollerday donsk? N. You tolkatiff scowegian? Nn. You spigotty anglease? Nnn. You phonio saxo? Nnnn. Clear all so! 'Tis a Jute.... (Finnegans Wake 16.5)