Re: Degrees of volition in active languages (was Re:Chevraqis:asketch)
|From:||Irina Rempt <ira@...>|
|Date:||Monday, August 14, 2000, 9:08|
On Mon, 14 Aug 2000, Thomas R. Wier wrote:
> > l-am v@zut pe el
> > him-have seen OBJ him
> > "I have seen him"
> > This is the emphatic form; without emphasis it's simply "l-am v@zut".
> Wait -- does that mean that Romanian crossreferences both the object
> and the subject on the verb?
The unemphasized pronoun is a clitic; I think it depends on your
definition of "on the verb" :-)
This is only with human objects, and in the case of inversion:
l-am v@zut pe Sorin - I've seen Sorin
l-am v@zut pe el - I've seen HIM, it's him I've seen
l-am v@zut - I've seen him
(_pe_ is an object marker for human objects)
am v@zut cîinele - I've seen the dog
l-am v@zut - I've seen it
cîinele l-am v@zut - it's the dog I've seen
> Or does the unemphasized form just leave
> the object NP out, left to be assumed by the listener?
For unspecified human objects, yes.
Varsinen an laynynay, saraz no arlet rastynay.
email@example.com (myself) http://www.valdyas.org/irina/valdyas