Re: Imperatives, not only negative (was: Noli-me-tangere)
|From:||P. M. ARKTAYG <pmva@...>|
|Date:||Friday, April 30, 1999, 23:18|
Raymond A. Brown wrote:
> [snipped, although interesting]
> In Welsh the negative is 'ni(d)' + spirant mutation & the verb is follo=wed
> by 'ddim' if the object is indefinite or 'mo' (<-- 'ddim o') if the obj=ect
> is definite. In speech the preceding 'ni' is generally omitted, leavin=g
> only the mutation, thus, e.g.
> Prynais i lyfrau - I bought some books.
> Prynais i'r llyfrau - I bought the books.
> Phynais i ddim llafrau - I didn't buy any books.
> Phrynais i mo'r llayfrau - I didn't buy the books.
Interesting. What exactly do "ddim" and "mo'r" stand for?
Why the first time "phynais" and the second time "phrynais" (similarly
"llafrau" and "llayfrau")? Has it something to do with "ddim" and "mo'r"?
> BUT - none of this with the imperatives!
> The imperatives of 'prynu' are: pryna (sing.), prynwch (plural).
> But for negatives we must use: 'paid' (sing) or 'peidwch', the imperati=ves
> of 'peidio' (to stop, cease) + the verbnoun, thus:
> paid prynu! Don't buy.
> peidwch prynu! Don't buy.
> In literary Welsh we must have '=E2' (with), which also causes spirant =of
> 'c', 'p' and 't', is used and some spoken dialects still preserve this,
> paid =E2 phrynu! peidwch =E2 phrynu!
I like it.
> How do other conlangers deal with this. Is it just the word for "not" =+
> the imperative, or are there some more interesting constructions among =our
absolutivum onu:vi 'to go, to come, to walk'
imperativum onu:zi (<<< onu:b>zi)
normal form polite form impolite form
2. sing. onu:zi-thevi l.e-thevin onu:vi onu:zi
2. pl. onu:zi-the l.e-then onu:vi onu:zi
3. sing. onu:zi-l (not used) (not used)
3. pl. onu:zi-rra (not used) (not used)
2. sing. negat. onu:den-thevi l.eden-thevin onu:vi onu:den
2. pl. negat. onu:den-the l.eden-then onu:vi onu:den
3. sing. negat. onu:de-rn (not used) (not used)
3. pl. negat. onu:den-irra (not used) (not used)
Also, there are forms in medium:
l.ub>b>e-the! 'perfect yourselves!'; abs. l.uppo 'to perfect, to improve'
thu-ze>n.uze ghigen-the! 'may you not be on a desert' [Is this correct in=
n.o rappiben, u-lo>s.a men-elp>ip>i! 'don't touch me, son of a bitch!'
ghon-no, udusi l.e-then uduzzi! 'sire, we ask you to tell a story'
P. M. ARKTAYG